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Psychology 2134A/B Lecture Notes - Speech Error, Bound And Unbound Morphemes, Wilhelm Wundt

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Marc Joanisse

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LECTURE 2.8 Speech Production
Real conversations can be very and are often nothing close to what we see in movies. They
require certain elements to function as well.
For one thing conversations require personnel. The term personnel refers to individuals, and to
meet this requirement a conversation must have personnel to conduct it.
In addition to personnel a conversation requires three more aspects...
o Pre Sequences
These are conversation starters like “hello” and “what’s up” that let the other
person know that you are interested in a conversation.
o Action-Sequences
This is an exchange of relevant information between parties to further the
conversation towards its goal.
o Common Ground
Knowledge held by both parties that will influence what is discussed. For
example if you want to talk about “Roger” but the person you’re conversing
with doesn’t know who Roger is, then you must establish common ground.
“You know Roger?” “Who?” “My roommate!” ”Oh yeah Roger, the tall
Conversations also consist of things called adjacency pairs which are quick exchanges in which
both parties contribute.
o Greeting/Reciprocation
Person A: “Hi!” Person B: “Hello!
o Request/Compliance
Person A: “Do you sell these?” Person B “Yes, over there.”
o Assertion/Agreement
Person A: “You a legend.” Person B “Yup.”
One of the most basic conventions of conversations is turn taking. It is assumed that everyone
participating in a conversation knows how to properly take turns. People will often use cues to
obtain turns; for example you might clear your throat, raise your hand or say “ya” repeatedly
until you’re allowed your turn.
People participating in a conversation also have a shared context; i.e. we are all sitting in the
living together. Part of the reason why talking on the phone can be so awkward is because there
is no shared context so the person that you’re conversing with can’t possibly know what it is
that’s happening in your environment.
Speech is produced online; this means that we plan what we are going to say several words in
advance. Hesitations (stumbling in speech) occur when we haven’t planned adequately ahead.
Historically, psychologists have examined speech errors to gain insight into how we produce
speech. Some examples are Wundt and Lashley discovering that speech is centrally planned or
Freud’s famous term Freudian Slips to describe slips of the tongue.
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