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Psychology 2134A/B
Marc Joanisse

LECTURE 2.8 – Speech Production  Real conversations can be very and are often nothing close to what we see in movies. They require certain elements to function as well.  For one thing conversations require personnel. The term personnel refers to individuals, and to meet this requirement a conversation must have personnel to conduct it.  In addition to personnel a conversation requires three more aspects... o Pre –Sequences  These are conversation starters like “hello” and “what’s up” that let the other person know that you are interested in a conversation. o Action-Sequences  This is an exchange of relevant information between parties to further the conversation towards its goal. o Common Ground  Knowledge held by both parties that will influence what is discussed. For example if you want to talk about “Roger” but the person you’re conversing with doesn’t know who Roger is, then you must establish common ground.  “You know Roger?”  “Who?”  “My roommate!” ”Oh yeah Roger, the tall guy.”  Conversations also consist of things called adjacency pairs which are quick exchanges in which both parties contribute. o Greeting/Reciprocation  Person A: “Hi!”  Person B: “Hello!” o Request/Compliance  Person A: “Do you sell these?”  Person B “Yes, over there.” o Assertion/Agreement  Person A: “You a legend.”  Person B “Yup.”  One of the most basic conventions of conversations is turn taking. It is assumed that everyone participating in a conversation knows how to properly take turns. People will often use cues to obtain turns; for example you might clear your throat, raise your hand or say “ya” repeatedly until you’re allowed your turn.  People participating in a conversation also have a shared context; i.e. we are all sitting in the living together. Part of the reason why talking on the phone can be so awkward is because there is no shared context so the person that you’re conversing with can’t possibly know what it is that’s happening in your environment.  Speech is produced online; this means that we plan what we are going to say several words in advance. Hesitations (stumbling in speech) occur when we haven’t planned adequately ahead.  Historically, psychologists have examined speech errors to gain insight into how we produce speech. Some examples are Wundt and Lashley discovering that speech is centrally planned or Freud’s famous term Freudian Slips to describe slips of the tongue.  Speech errors are abundant and it’s no surprise why. We produce speech at a very rapid rate of up to 12 phonemes per second. This requires the coordination of respiration, the larynx and vocal articulators.  Fromkin is a more modern psychologist who studied these speech errors. She claimed that they were a valuable window into how we process speech and f
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