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Chapter 3 Cog Lecture.docx

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Psychology 2135A/B
Ruby Nadler

10/19/2012 4:30:00 PM Chapter 3 Cog Lecture Recognizing an object means doing two things. First, you have to generate some internal representation of the object - a description of the object in the language of the nervous system Second, you have to locate a matching object, with the same description, in memory Why is object recognition difficult? In terms of our retinal images  1) Orientation (objects that are same may have diff retinal images)  2) Ambiguity (crumpled toilet paper and cream cheese)  3) Incompletion (partially blocked, bad lighting, etc)  4) Ambiguity of the retinal images (diff shapes but same retinal images) Example of picking up a cup and turning it around  you don't perceive the object as changing shape, only as changing orientation Suppose you found yourself in a very unfamiliar situation  Your analysis of the object would be “bottom-up” – focusing on its shape, color, surface texture, weight, and other such sensory qualities.. JAMES GIBSON believed in bottom up processing as a way to perceive and recognize objects (not a dominantly shared view) In a bottom-up model, the internal representation of the stimulus is the critical thing. With template models, how would you learn to recognize new objects Feature models – David Hubel 1960 and Torsten Wiesel .. used a single-cell recording technique to study the visual system in cats… horizontal lines got reactions while sometimes just vertical lines did. NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS They found that different neurons responded to different basic features.  A Problem - how can the cup be represented in memory as a particular list of features if the features depend upon its orientation with respect to the viewer?  A second problem is that any visual object consists not just of a list of features but also of a plan of sorts for how the features are arranged spatially with respect to each other  A final problem with feature
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