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Psychology 2135A/B

Transfer Appropriate Processing  Retrieval will be best if the processes you do at retrieval match the process you did at encoding  The take hoe message is that when the processing at encoding matched the processing at retrieval  Another aspect of this has to do with your expectations for the kind of test you will see  D‟Ydewalle and Rosselle (1978) told people to expect either a multiple choice test or open questions. Half got what they expected, half got the other. Either way getting what they expected = did better Memory Errors  Humans elaborate and integrate in order to store mechanisms Intrusion Errors  Owens, Bower, and Black (1979)  Half the participants read a story  The other half of the participants read the same passage + the prologue Deese-Roediger-McBermott Paradigm  Rest awake tired dream wake snooze slumber yawn The DRM false memory task  did you remember the word sleep?  In recognition, false memory to the lure (sleep) Can we find intrusions and distortions in more ecologically valid situations? Eyewitness testimony  Can be wrong  Participants saw a short film clip of a car accident  How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?  Or, how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? o Verb different, ones that had smashed, people said they were going faster that those that heard hit.  Then a week later were asked if there was any broken glass, depends on the word they were given o If asked with the word hit  Most people were right, and did not remember glass o If asked with smash  Many people [about 30%] were wrong and through there was broken glass  This is an intrusion error o Eyewitness testimony can contain intrusion and distortion errors. Other Memory Errors  Misinformation acceptance o People accept additional info having been part of an earlier experience without actually remembering that info o Did I remember the car speeding because it was, or because the policemen suggested it was?  Overconfidence in Memory o Source memory of the exact source of the info o Processing fluency the ease with which something comes to mind  Source Misattribution o The inability to distinguish whether the original event or some later event was the source of info o Did I remember the word sleep because it was actually there or because about the worked as I looked at the study list? o Did I read that in a book or see it in a movie, or did my friend tell me about it Individual Differences (Tomes and Katz)  Some people are more susceptible to misinformation than others  People high at risk for misinformation acceptance have o Poor general memory o High scores on imagery vividness o High empathy scores The Structure of our LTM Knowledge  Declarative memory; knowledge of “facts”  Whether true or not, you have to believe its true.  Scripts and Schemata o For routine events o Restaurant example o Allows inferences, problem of intrusions The ACT model  A symbolic model o Assumes that thinking and memory relies on the manipulation of cognitive symbols o A general framework that specifies how the mind/brain is organized  Human Associative Memory – HAM o John R. Anderson and Gordon Bower, 1973  ACT o Built by Anderson onto the memory model o Contains procedural memory o Declarative memory, facts of the world Declarative Memory in ACT-R  Knowledge is represented as concepts (nodes) and relations (links)  There are organized as propositions  Propositions are the smallest unit of meaning that can be true or false. o Roses are red o Digs are mammals Production Memory  Info represented as productions  A production rule: If x then do Y  Production systems: with practice we get, in essence chunking  IF x then do this sequence of events  Learning! Fan Effect  Propositions with more links will be harder to remember o Because activation spreads to all the outgoing links Some problems in ‘search’  Fixation – using prior strategy and failing to use novel approach  Mental Sets – we have a tendency to stick to a tried and true methods even when other strategies might be more efficient or useful Luchin’s Jar Problem  Capacity of Jars Amount to get  A B C  21 127 3 100  8 43 10 20 Functional Fixedness  Example : use objects shown, o Key was, use the box too Problem Solving: String Problem  Must put pliers on string and create a pendulum and then swing it, while going to get the other one, then can tie them together. Other Problem Solving Problems  NON-COGNITIVE  Lack of motivation  Emotion – especially frustration, when failing to solve a problem Decision Making  Assume there is an election o Liberal o NDP o Conservative o Green o BQ  How choose? o Difficulties  Conflict  Decision maker must make tradeoffs across different dimensions (ex. car‟s power vs. gas mileage, etc)  Uncertainty  Outcome of decision often depends on uncertain variables or events (ex. future demand for product, completion time). How do people make decisions?  A logical comparison of the pros and cons Rational Decisions  Rational (normative) model sets the standard Expected Value  People set a value for all the alternatives
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