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Lecture 9

Lecture 9, Oct 10.docx

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Psychology 2135A/B
Marcie Penner- Wilger

Lecture 9, Oct 10 Inattentional blindness -observes fail to notice a visual object or event -the object or event is fully-visible and observers readily see it if they are looking for it -the failure to notice results from engagement of attention on other aspects of the display and not from aspects of the visual stimulus itself -the object or even it unexpected example for exam must fit this criteria in order to be attentional blindness -illusion of attention (myth whereas inattentional blindness is a phenomena)-the belief that you would have seen it Memory, more than just retrieval -functions of memory: natural inference system (stores some facts, derive others) relate new events to prior knowledge delivers relevant knowledge when needed (works differently for everyone) Processes of memory -encoding/acquisition -storage -retrieval encoding --- >storage ----- > retrieval Memory -influenced by computer metaphor -location-based (computers-know where everything is stored and look by based on an address) vs. context-driven memory (humans) -contextual memory driven by cues (context) priming involuntarily triggered (eg. smelling something and it reminding you of a memory-it just pops up you don’t mean for it to happen) Short-term memory -aka primary memory (different from working memory) -limited (7 plus or minus 2) chunking -short duration (without maintenance rehearsal-repeating something over and over) -codes(representations): phonological (acoustic-verbal), visual/spatial -when groupings are familiar we are able to chunk them together to be able to remember Chunking -chunking extends limits -chuck meaningful group of information (can be different for everyone) psychological unit function of prior knowledge individual (eg. guy who chucks numbers together from know a lot about racing times- unique to him) Working memory -system underlying the maintenance of task-relevant information during performance of a cognitive task active maintenance (rehearsal) temporary storage -limited capacity -new and improved short-term memory (can hold more details), focus of different functions Baddekey’s model -phonological loop (aka articulatory rehearsal loop)-has the functions below(storing info and inner speech) -maintenance, storage, and manipulation of acoustic (verbal) information phonological store (storing the info) articulatory control process (inner speech) -visuospatial sketch pad (VSSP; aka visuospatial buffer) -maintenance(keeping it active), storage, and manipulation of visual/spatial information visual cache (store) inner scribe (rehearses visual/spatial info) -central executive no storage component switching attention between tasks planning subtasks to achieve a goal (eg. step 1, step 2, step 3) selective attention and inhibition (paying attention and focusing to some things and ignoring others) updating and checking contents of working memory (eg. doing a math problem that has multiple steps, it is the central executive that is updating your working memory) dementia (Alhizmers) effected by central executive (eg. get them to draw a clock that says a specific time but they lack planning out how they will draw it, usually you start off by drawing a circle with the 12, 3, 6, and 9) Ways to assess WM -dual task paradigm what components of WM are used for a task? task is performed by itself and concurrently with a secondary task designed to tap one of the components of working memory perform task by itself and see whether it involves the visuospatial sketch pad vs. the phonological loop and measure it by performing another task at the same time -span task what is the capacity of WM? what is the relation between WM and performance on other tasks? Dual task paradigm -phonological loop secondary task: articulatory suppression (eg. someone repeat a specific word “the the…”) interferes with inner speech by also doing a math question (primary task) as well -visuospatial sketch pad secondary task: spatial tapping (and others) –taping a specific pattern on a keypad from a predetermined sequence on a computer screen while trying to do the math question -central executive secondary task: random generation (and others) –saying a random set of things (eg. name all the birds you know) while trying to do the primary task -have to monitor both tasks so that one does not slow down while trying to do the other -logic: if the secondary task disrupts performance of the primary cognitive task (compared to a control condition) then infer that the WM component tapped by the secondary task is involved in the
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