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oct 22 memory in the real world.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2135A/B
Professor
Marcie Penner- Wilger

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Memory in the real world  In real world situations, encoding is focused on comprehending rather than remembering  Memory is often reconstruction rather than simple retrieval -integrates different sources of info in remembering -serves us usually really well because what matters is usually the meaning, not the exact wording Why do we forget?  Decay (short term memory)  Interference -remember names by what its interfering with -retroactive-difficulty recalling earlier things due to interference from later things -proactive-difficulty recalling later things due to interference from earlier things  Overwriting-memories are changed by later events Comprehension  Meaning is a function of both the input and the activated knowledge  Comprehension is an active not passive process -depends on what you already know, combination of what you know and the new information  Understanding consists of constructing an integrated representation -ex. List of sentences, linking everything together Computational complexity  Too much potentially relevant knowledge that could be activated!  But we are able to understand complex situations with little effort  How do we decide what is relevant? Schemata -also known as schemas  General knowledge structure used for understanding -contains one’s knowledge about the world -encodes information about a particular type of situation rather than one specific situation -structured to include information on relations between knowledge -used for comprehension Scripts  General knowledge structure used for understanding -contains one’s knowledge of the sequences of events that usually occurs in a situation -encodes information about a particular type of situation rather than one specific situation -structured to include information on relations between knowledge -used for comprehension Schemata -occur at various levels of abstraction and can be embedded -influence what is stored and retrieved -make world seem more normal-what we code and retrieve is what typically happens, ex. Says theres books in a professor’s office because that’s typical even if there weren’t  Activated by: -key words or key objects -additional supporting words/objects -context Schemas  Pros -treat knowledge of events as connected -support inferences -generate expectations -limit computational complexity of memory and the task  Cons -can lead to bias and misremembering False memories  Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedu
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