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Lecture 13

Psychology 2135A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Fantasy Prone Personality, Autobiographical Memory, Knowledge Representation And Reasoning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2135A/B
Professor
John Paul Minda
Lecture
13

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 11 pages of the document.
memories aren't really stored anywhere
-
storage is a metaphor for memory
-
retrieval is a metaphor as well, if it isn't stored in any one place, we can't just go
retrieve it
-
you can't trust your memory 100%
-
SCHACTER'S (1999) SEVEN SINS OF MEMORY
will be on the test
-
transient memory: the memories don't stay, its not useful to keep the information
around -- can result from absent-mindedness
-
absent-mindedness:
-
blocking: a form of retrieval failure -- you know you have the information, but
you can't get to it (ie. tip of the tongue phenomenon)
-
misattribution: don't know the source of the memory (ie. falsely including the
word sleep)
-
suggestibility: false memory paradigm
-
persistence: things you don't want to remember, aren't helpful to remember, but
you can't forget
-
shows that memory isn't perfect
-
MINDA QUOTE
memory isn't designed to remember specific facts or details
-
designed to generalize, categorize and predict
-
we need an imperfect memory so that it is flexible and is able to stretch the
truth -- that's how we learn
-
allow us to recognize conceptual structures
-
goal of memory is ot subserve other functions and behaviours
-
INTEGRATING MEMORIES OT GUIDE DECISION
Shahamy and Daw
-
memory is central to adaptive behaviour
-
in order to make flexible decisions, organisms must draw on past experiences to
anticipate and evaluate outcomes of different courses of action
-
subjects did a sensory preconditioning task -- learned to pair 2 shapes together
when you see a blue square, it's always followed by a grey circle
-
subjects are then given rewards for some shapes
-
final stage: given an option to pick which shape you like better
-
the blue square is connected to the grey circle which is connected to the reward --
your memory is connecting these two
-
HSAM
highly superior autobiographical memory
-
people who are unable to forget anything
-
don't view it as positive because they can't forget bad things
-
scored high on fantasy proneness and absorption
fantasy proneness: tendency to imagine and daydream
absorption: tendency to allow your mind to become immersed in an
activity -- pay complete attention to the sensations and experiences
-
able to be highly focused AND daydream at the same time
-
better memory for what's happening to them, don't have better memory for facts
-
BASIC OPERATIONS OF MEMORY
encoding
putting things in memory
the research focus is on attentional and/or processing limits
can be conscious or unconscious (try to learn something and some things
you just know)
-
storage
knowledge representation
memory for procedures, facts, etc.
memories are not actually "stored"
no location in your brain that holds all your memories, they're stored all
over the brain, and can have activations between them
-
retrieval
remembering things
recalling things
using information that was stored
can actively or indirectly try to remember things
-
KINDS OF MEMORY
memory is not a single process
there are different ways to divide and analyze memory
what are these divisions?
divisions can be based on how we are trying to use the memories or
how researchers what to study it
§
-
main 5 ways to study memory -- these terms and concepts may overlap
content
encoding
retrieval
effort
duration
-
CONTENT
declarative memory (Endel Tulving)
things you can say
semantic: facts
knowledge representation
§
memory for facts
§
may not be able to point to a day when you learned the facts, but you
know you know it
§
episodic: events
Tulving describes it as personal time travel (able to go forwards and
back)
§
store memory for personal events
§
uses or stores information that you can declare the existence of -- you
know what's in your memory and can describe something about the
memory (ie. how you can access it)
-
non declarative memory
things you can do
procedural memory
ie. how to tie your shoes
§
motor memory
ie. ability to type, ability to spell
§
memories that you can't really explain how you use them
ie. gradual association of the blue square and grey circle
-
ENCODING
intentional
studying, trying to learn something
learning a list of words
-
incidental
learning by association/exposure
learning grammar rules, lyrics/tune of popular songs, etc.
-
requires attention
cocktail party effect (attention shifts)
either intentional or incidental encoding you need to pay some kind of
attention to it
-
without the focused attention?
visual images are often acquired incidentally
drawing your car's dash or desktop icons
number of points of the maple leaf
need intentional encoding to say specifically how many points
§
incidental encoding allows you to know if its drawn right or wrong
§
-
EFFORT
effortful memory
requires effort to store/retrieve
study for an exam
-
automatic memory
retrieval can be done with few resources
many procedural memories and semantic memory
if you're trying to remember something
-
RETRIEVAL
explicit
trying to recall the information
told to remember it (could be automatic memory, but you're being told to
recall it)
ie. writing an exam
-
implicit
information influences performance without awareness
not aware that you're using your memory
your memory is influencing performance
-
studied differently
-
DURATION
sensory (less than a second)
-
short term/working memory/primary memory
short
7 +/- 2 chunks
active memory buffer
temporary storage
sensory information you're planning on integrating with your knowledge
center
having a conversation involves a lot of this
-
long term memory
no limit because it isn't a storage facility, it's just a connection of activation
declarative memory (the past)
semantic memory (facts)
-
A BASIC MODEL OF MEMORY
not how memory works
-
doens't accuratley describe neurological process of encoding information
-
The Modal Model
characteristics and design
2 different types of memory (suggests short term memory is seperate from
long term memory)
-
acquisition of memories
-
THE MODAL MODEL
Waugh & Norman; Atkinson & Shiffrin
-
original model of memory in psychology
-
information processing approach
memory is made of "bits" of information
-
this approach was influenced by introduction of modern computer technology
-
only way to get things to long term memory was to rehearse it for long enough
until it gets transferring to long term memory
in reality, things can get into your long term memory without rehearsal
-
know this isn't how the brain works, but it is used to understand cognition behind
memory
-
computational/theoretical model
-
primary memory (PM)/short term memory (STM)
limited capacity
information decays because it is written over by new information
(computer metaphor)
-
secondary memory (SM)/long term memory (LTM)
large store (unlimited)
information can enter from PM by rehearsing it
-
information enters PM from outside (seeing/perceiving) or remembering
something from long term
-
you only have access to the short term memory store
-
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
basic finding that shows short and long term memory
-
free recall
subject is given list of 20+ words to memorize
asked to recall as many as they can
-
suggests we remember first and last things in a long list more than anything in the
middle
-
sometimes the beginning or end of the curve is affected depending how the study
is done
-
good performance in the beginning and end
-
primacy effect: first words, rehearsed the longest, able to enter long term memory
-
recency effect: words that were most recently seen and are still in your short term
memory
-
the modal model suggests the primacy effect occurs because those words have
gone to the long term storage
-
decrease in the middle is because you were unable to rehearse them because they
were coming too fast
-
recency effect occurs because they're still in your short term memory
-
asked to remember 12 words
-
condition 1: asked to recall words immediately
good recency and primacy effect
-
condition 2: asked to wait 30s before recalling words
good recency and primacy effect
-
condition 3: recall words after 30s filled delay
destroys recency effect because the filler is taking up room in your short
term memory
-
subjects either given slow or fast presentation
-
the faster things go, the worse your performance is on primacy part of the curve
don't have enough time to rehearse words
the new words were coming so quick, so very few words are able to be
rehearsed
-
speed of presentation affects only primacy portion of the curve, leaves recency
portion unaffected
-
TWO MEMORY STORES
serial position effect
primacy represents items transferred into LTM
recency represents items still in STM
-
SHORT TERM MEMORY
short term/working memory
-
how short is it?
-
how is information stored?
coding
rehearsal
-
how is information transferred?
-
long term storage
short term storage
lecture 13: introduction to memory
Tuesday, October 31, 2017
9:35 AM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

memories aren't really stored anywhere
-
storage is a metaphor for memory
-
retrieval is a metaphor as well, if it isn't stored in any one place, we can't just go
retrieve it
-
you can't trust your memory 100%
-
SCHACTER'S (1999) SEVEN SINS OF MEMORY
will be on the test
-
transient memory: the memories don't stay, its not useful to keep the information
around -- can result from absent-mindedness
-
absent-mindedness:
-
blocking: a form of retrieval failure -- you know you have the information, but
you can't get to it (ie. tip of the tongue phenomenon)
-
misattribution: don't know the source of the memory (ie. falsely including the
word sleep)
-
suggestibility: false memory paradigm
-
persistence: things you don't want to remember, aren't helpful to remember, but
you can't forget
-
shows that memory isn't perfect
-
MINDA QUOTE
memory isn't designed to remember specific facts or details
-
designed to generalize, categorize and predict
-
we need an imperfect memory so that it is flexible and is able to stretch the
truth -- that's how we learn
-
allow us to recognize conceptual structures
-
goal of memory is ot subserve other functions and behaviours
-
INTEGRATING MEMORIES OT GUIDE DECISION
Shahamy and Daw
-
memory is central to adaptive behaviour
-
in order to make flexible decisions, organisms must draw on past experiences to
anticipate and evaluate outcomes of different courses of action
-
subjects did a sensory preconditioning task -- learned to pair 2 shapes together
when you see a blue square, it's always followed by a grey circle
-
subjects are then given rewards for some shapes
-
final stage: given an option to pick which shape you like better
-
the blue square is connected to the grey circle which is connected to the reward --
your memory is connecting these two
-
HSAM
highly superior autobiographical memory
-
people who are unable to forget anything
-
don't view it as positive because they can't forget bad things
-
scored high on fantasy proneness and absorption
fantasy proneness: tendency to imagine and daydream
absorption: tendency to allow your mind to become immersed in an
activity -- pay complete attention to the sensations and experiences
-
able to be highly focused AND daydream at the same time
-
better memory for what's happening to them, don't have better memory for facts
-
BASIC OPERATIONS OF MEMORY
encoding
putting things in memory
the research focus is on attentional and/or processing limits
can be conscious or unconscious (try to learn something and some things
you just know)
-
storage
knowledge representation
memory for procedures, facts, etc.
memories are not actually "stored"
no location in your brain that holds all your memories, they're stored all
over the brain, and can have activations between them
-
retrieval
remembering things
recalling things
using information that was stored
can actively or indirectly try to remember things
-
KINDS OF MEMORY
memory is not a single process
there are different ways to divide and analyze memory
what are these divisions?
divisions can be based on how we are trying to use the memories or
how researchers what to study it
§
-
main 5 ways to study memory -- these terms and concepts may overlap
content
encoding
retrieval
effort
duration
-
CONTENT
declarative memory (Endel Tulving)
things you can say
semantic: facts
knowledge representation
§
memory for facts
§
may not be able to point to a day when you learned the facts, but you
know you know it
§
episodic: events
Tulving describes it as personal time travel (able to go forwards and
back)
§
store memory for personal events
§
uses or stores information that you can declare the existence of -- you
know what's in your memory and can describe something about the
memory (ie. how you can access it)
-
non declarative memory
things you can do
procedural memory
ie. how to tie your shoes
§
motor memory
ie. ability to type, ability to spell
§
memories that you can't really explain how you use them
ie. gradual association of the blue square and grey circle
-
ENCODING
intentional
studying, trying to learn something
learning a list of words
-
incidental
learning by association/exposure
learning grammar rules, lyrics/tune of popular songs, etc.
-
requires attention
cocktail party effect (attention shifts)
either intentional or incidental encoding you need to pay some kind of
attention to it
-
without the focused attention?
visual images are often acquired incidentally
drawing your car's dash or desktop icons
number of points of the maple leaf
need intentional encoding to say specifically how many points
§
incidental encoding allows you to know if its drawn right or wrong
§
-
EFFORT
effortful memory
requires effort to store/retrieve
study for an exam
-
automatic memory
retrieval can be done with few resources
many procedural memories and semantic memory
if you're trying to remember something
-
RETRIEVAL
explicit
trying to recall the information
told to remember it (could be automatic memory, but you're being told to
recall it)
ie. writing an exam
-
implicit
information influences performance without awareness
not aware that you're using your memory
your memory is influencing performance
-
studied differently
-
DURATION
sensory (less than a second)
-
short term/working memory/primary memory
short
7 +/- 2 chunks
active memory buffer
temporary storage
sensory information you're planning on integrating with your knowledge
center
having a conversation involves a lot of this
-
long term memory
no limit because it isn't a storage facility, it's just a connection of activation
declarative memory (the past)
semantic memory (facts)
-
A BASIC MODEL OF MEMORY
not how memory works
-
doens't accuratley describe neurological process of encoding information
-
The Modal Model
characteristics and design
2 different types of memory (suggests short term memory is seperate from
long term memory)
-
acquisition of memories
-
THE MODAL MODEL
Waugh & Norman; Atkinson & Shiffrin
-
original model of memory in psychology
-
information processing approach
memory is made of "bits" of information
-
this approach was influenced by introduction of modern computer technology
-
only way to get things to long term memory was to rehearse it for long enough
until it gets transferring to long term memory
in reality, things can get into your long term memory without rehearsal
-
know this isn't how the brain works, but it is used to understand cognition behind
memory
-
computational/theoretical model
-
primary memory (PM)/short term memory (STM)
limited capacity
information decays because it is written over by new information
(computer metaphor)
-
secondary memory (SM)/long term memory (LTM)
large store (unlimited)
information can enter from PM by rehearsing it
-
information enters PM from outside (seeing/perceiving) or remembering
something from long term
-
you only have access to the short term memory store
-
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
basic finding that shows short and long term memory
-
free recall
subject is given list of 20+ words to memorize
asked to recall as many as they can
-
suggests we remember first and last things in a long list more than anything in the
middle
-
sometimes the beginning or end of the curve is affected depending how the study
is done
-
good performance in the beginning and end
-
primacy effect: first words, rehearsed the longest, able to enter long term memory
-
recency effect: words that were most recently seen and are still in your short term
memory
-
the modal model suggests the primacy effect occurs because those words have
gone to the long term storage
-
decrease in the middle is because you were unable to rehearse them because they
were coming too fast
-
recency effect occurs because they're still in your short term memory
-
asked to remember 12 words
-
condition 1: asked to recall words immediately
good recency and primacy effect
-
condition 2: asked to wait 30s before recalling words
good recency and primacy effect
-
condition 3: recall words after 30s filled delay
destroys recency effect because the filler is taking up room in your short
term memory
-
subjects either given slow or fast presentation
-
the faster things go, the worse your performance is on primacy part of the curve
don't have enough time to rehearse words
the new words were coming so quick, so very few words are able to be
rehearsed
-
speed of presentation affects only primacy portion of the curve, leaves recency
portion unaffected
-
TWO MEMORY STORES
serial position effect
primacy represents items transferred into LTM
recency represents items still in STM
-
SHORT TERM MEMORY
short term/working memory
-
how short is it?
-
how is information stored?
coding
rehearsal
-
how is information transferred?
-
long term storage
short term storage
lecture 13: introduction to memory
Tuesday, October 31, 2017 9:35 AM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

memories aren't really stored anywhere
-
storage is a metaphor for memory
-
retrieval is a metaphor as well, if it isn't stored in any one place, we can't just go
retrieve it
-
you can't trust your memory 100%
-
SCHACTER'S (1999) SEVEN SINS OF MEMORY
will be on the test
-
transient memory: the memories don't stay, its not useful to keep the information
around -- can result from absent-mindedness
-
absent-mindedness:
-
blocking: a form of retrieval failure -- you know you have the information, but
you can't get to it (ie. tip of the tongue phenomenon)
-
misattribution: don't know the source of the memory (ie. falsely including the
word sleep)
-
suggestibility: false memory paradigm
-
persistence: things you don't want to remember, aren't helpful to remember, but
you can't forget
-
shows that memory isn't perfect
-
MINDA QUOTE
memory isn't designed to remember specific facts or details
-
designed to generalize, categorize and predict
-
we need an imperfect memory so that it is flexible and is able to stretch the
truth -- that's how we learn
-
allow us to recognize conceptual structures
-
goal of memory is ot subserve other functions and behaviours
-
INTEGRATING MEMORIES OT GUIDE DECISION
Shahamy and Daw
-
memory is central to adaptive behaviour
-
in order to make flexible decisions, organisms must draw on past experiences to
anticipate and evaluate outcomes of different courses of action
-
subjects did a sensory preconditioning task -- learned to pair 2 shapes together
when you see a blue square, it's always followed by a grey circle
-
subjects are then given rewards for some shapes
-
final stage: given an option to pick which shape you like better
-
the blue square is connected to the grey circle which is connected to the reward --
your memory is connecting these two
-
HSAM
highly superior autobiographical memory
-
people who are unable to forget anything
-
don't view it as positive because they can't forget bad things
-
scored high on fantasy proneness and absorption
fantasy proneness: tendency to imagine and daydream
absorption: tendency to allow your mind to become immersed in an
activity -- pay complete attention to the sensations and experiences
-
able to be highly focused AND daydream at the same time
-
better memory for what's happening to them, don't have better memory for facts
-
BASIC OPERATIONS OF MEMORY
encoding
putting things in memory
the research focus is on attentional and/or processing limits
can be conscious or unconscious (try to learn something and some things
you just know)
-
storage
knowledge representation
memory for procedures, facts, etc.
memories are not actually "stored"
no location in your brain that holds all your memories, they're stored all
over the brain, and can have activations between them
-
retrieval
remembering things
recalling things
using information that was stored
can actively or indirectly try to remember things
-
KINDS OF MEMORY
memory is not a single process
there are different ways to divide and analyze memory
what are these divisions?
divisions can be based on how we are trying to use the memories or
how researchers what to study it
-
main 5 ways to study memory -- these terms and concepts may overlap
content
encoding
retrieval
effort
duration
-
CONTENT
declarative memory (Endel Tulving)
things you can say
semantic: facts
knowledge representation
memory for facts
may not be able to point to a day when you learned the facts, but you
know you know it
episodic: events
Tulving describes it as personal time travel (able to go forwards and
back)
store memory for personal events
uses or stores information that you can declare the existence of -- you
know what's in your memory and can describe something about the
memory (ie. how you can access it)
-
non declarative memory
things you can do
procedural memory
ie. how to tie your shoes
§
motor memory
ie. ability to type, ability to spell
§
memories that you can't really explain how you use them
ie. gradual association of the blue square and grey circle
-
ENCODING
intentional
studying, trying to learn something
learning a list of words
-
incidental
learning by association/exposure
learning grammar rules, lyrics/tune of popular songs, etc.
-
requires attention
cocktail party effect (attention shifts)
either intentional or incidental encoding you need to pay some kind of
attention to it
-
without the focused attention?
visual images are often acquired incidentally
drawing your car's dash or desktop icons
number of points of the maple leaf
need intentional encoding to say specifically how many points
§
incidental encoding allows you to know if its drawn right or wrong
§
-
EFFORT
effortful memory
requires effort to store/retrieve
study for an exam
-
automatic memory
retrieval can be done with few resources
many procedural memories and semantic memory
if you're trying to remember something
-
RETRIEVAL
explicit
trying to recall the information
told to remember it (could be automatic memory, but you're being told to
recall it)
ie. writing an exam
-
implicit
information influences performance without awareness
not aware that you're using your memory
your memory is influencing performance
-
studied differently
-
DURATION
sensory (less than a second)
-
short term/working memory/primary memory
short
7 +/- 2 chunks
active memory buffer
temporary storage
sensory information you're planning on integrating with your knowledge
center
having a conversation involves a lot of this
-
long term memory
no limit because it isn't a storage facility, it's just a connection of activation
declarative memory (the past)
semantic memory (facts)
-
A BASIC MODEL OF MEMORY
not how memory works
-
doens't accuratley describe neurological process of encoding information
-
The Modal Model
characteristics and design
2 different types of memory (suggests short term memory is seperate from
long term memory)
-
acquisition of memories
-
THE MODAL MODEL
Waugh & Norman; Atkinson & Shiffrin
-
original model of memory in psychology
-
information processing approach
memory is made of "bits" of information
-
this approach was influenced by introduction of modern computer technology
-
only way to get things to long term memory was to rehearse it for long enough
until it gets transferring to long term memory
in reality, things can get into your long term memory without rehearsal
-
know this isn't how the brain works, but it is used to understand cognition behind
memory
-
computational/theoretical model
-
primary memory (PM)/short term memory (STM)
limited capacity
information decays because it is written over by new information
(computer metaphor)
-
secondary memory (SM)/long term memory (LTM)
large store (unlimited)
information can enter from PM by rehearsing it
-
information enters PM from outside (seeing/perceiving) or remembering
something from long term
-
you only have access to the short term memory store
-
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
basic finding that shows short and long term memory
-
free recall
subject is given list of 20+ words to memorize
asked to recall as many as they can
-
suggests we remember first and last things in a long list more than anything in the
middle
-
sometimes the beginning or end of the curve is affected depending how the study
is done
-
good performance in the beginning and end
-
primacy effect: first words, rehearsed the longest, able to enter long term memory
-
recency effect: words that were most recently seen and are still in your short term
memory
-
the modal model suggests the primacy effect occurs because those words have
gone to the long term storage
-
decrease in the middle is because you were unable to rehearse them because they
were coming too fast
-
recency effect occurs because they're still in your short term memory
-
asked to remember 12 words
-
condition 1: asked to recall words immediately
good recency and primacy effect
-
condition 2: asked to wait 30s before recalling words
good recency and primacy effect
-
condition 3: recall words after 30s filled delay
destroys recency effect because the filler is taking up room in your short
term memory
-
subjects either given slow or fast presentation
-
the faster things go, the worse your performance is on primacy part of the curve
don't have enough time to rehearse words
the new words were coming so quick, so very few words are able to be
rehearsed
-
speed of presentation affects only primacy portion of the curve, leaves recency
portion unaffected
-
TWO MEMORY STORES
serial position effect
primacy represents items transferred into LTM
recency represents items still in STM
-
SHORT TERM MEMORY
short term/working memory
-
how short is it?
-
how is information stored?
coding
rehearsal
-
how is information transferred?
-
long term storage
short term storage
lecture 13: introduction to memory
Tuesday, October 31, 2017 9:35 AM
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