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Methods and Paradigms

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Western University
Psychology 2135A/B
Robert Brown

1. Paradigms - Kuhn argue scientists have paradigms and new paradigms work better and replace old ones i.e. Einstein's theory of relativity - after a paradigm shift, enter a period of normal science - then get more data that new model cannot handle so a newer model is created - very dramatic shift in what everybody believes - what questions should we ask, what terms should we use, how do we analyze, etc. A. Information processing methods - based on computer programs and computer architecture - architecture: computers have an input system (keyboard), a central processor to do the computing and the output system (screen) - program: humans have input systems (senses), central processor (mind), output system (commands to muscles) - information stored in computer in symbolic form (binary code, 1, 0); human minds must have something similar - Pylyshyn (psychologist): symbol has a physical form and also has a meaning, thus, symbols solve the mind-body problem; not really - figure out architecture and program running the human mind - information flows through organism, processed in stages, stored in specific places while being processed sensory input -> attention -> working memory Long-term memory Response output - each function modelled on how computer does a task - this system encodes information into representations - what are they like? - processes operate on those representations - what are they like? (how do we retrieve memory, how do we find it?) - model is a general-purpose system - small set of processes can be combined in a great many ways - model in textbook is wrong; response output cannot come from long-term memory B. Connectionist models - Neural networks: simple neuron-like elements called nodes - nodes have two qualities: activation
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