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Object Perception

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Western University
Psychology 2135A/B
Robert Brown

Lecture 3 - Object Perception - pattern recognition is more general - recognize objects with pattern recognition Why is object recognition difficult? - image on retina does not constrain the possibilities; not enough information - human faces probably single most important visual stimulus - whether or not we can correctly recognize important differences - must recognize things to engage in right behaviour - must find visual cues - somehow know objects do not change with different orientations - somehow able to generate name of objects - do not need to see whole head to recognize/distinguish faces The stimulus on the receptors is ambiguous - inverse projection problem - image on retina can be caused by an infinite number of objects - objects can be hidden or blurred - common, but typically do not hinder environment Objects look different from different viewpoints - viewpoint invariance: ability to recognize object regardless of viewpoint Two kinds of theories - some of how we perceive things is in our culture, and some is in our evolution The stimulus is sufficient Structuralist Approach - there is enough information in the stimulus to explain our perceptions - percept of object is sum of combining elements - cannot explain apparent movement or illusory contours since observer sees things not present in stimulus - apparent movement occurs when we see something moving across when it is not really moving due to the small amount of time between stimulus - bi-stable: two different perceptions; can flip between two, can stay with one Direct Perception - 3 principles: 1. all information required for object perception is available in environment 2. perception is immediate; no need for inferences 3. perception is for action; perception guides action and action generates new percepts - as we move, we get different perceptions of same objects and learn that they do not change - a problem is that stimulus available at the retina can be same with different sizes and distances - different angles create different shapes on the retina - response is that you can tell difference when you move - movement provides new information that resolves uncertainty - Ames room goes against this hypothesis - we bring assumptions that may distort perception The stimulus is insufficient Gestalt theory - not enough information in stimulus to explain perception - nervous systems add information, based on experience, to what is available to senses - perception guided by principles of organization of stimuli (same thing as previous note) - whole differs from sum of parts; not build from sensations, but result of perceptual organization - perceptual organization involves grouping of elements in a visual stimulus to produce a larger object; grouping process requires knowledge of the world - principles: - good form (Pra
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