Lecture 3

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Psychology 2220A/B
Scott Mac Dougall- Shackleton

Psychology 2220BWeek 3text CH 2 January 26 2012Topics Thinking about geneenvironment interactions Human Evolution Fundamental Genetics Behavioural Development Genetics of Individual Differences False dichotomiesSTUPID QUESTIONS they reveal the misunderstandings about how we develop It is never one or the otherNature versus Nurture Brain versus Mind Physiological or Psychological Biology or Culture Genetics or Experience Innate or LearnedDescartes Cartesian dualism Descartes argued that the universe consists of two elementsPhysical matter sa body subject to physical laws of the earth Human mind soul self or spiritsomehow separate from the body and subject to different rules Pineal Gland seat of the soul that controls the rest of the bodyCartesian dualism viewed the mind and brain as separate entitiesDualismDescartesview of mind and brain as distinct entities Scientists study brains philosophers study the mind conscious mind can operate independent of biological operations of the brainIs It Inherited or Is It Learned The naturenurture issue Watson a behaviorist believed that all behavior was the product of learning nurture The naturenurture debate is a direct product of dualism and is equally falseEthology the study of animal behavior in the wild focuses on instinctive nature behaviorsEarly 20th centuryEthology Euro field studies Innate development history Comparative Psychology bhvrists N Amr lab studies Looking for general patternsprinciples of learning used animals as toolsmodel systems Give me a dozen healthy infants well formed and my own specified world to bring them up and Ill guarantee to take any one at random and train himto become any type of specialist I might selectdoctor lawyermerchantchief and yes even beggarman and thief regardless of his talents penchants tendencies abilities vocations and race of his ancestors Watson 1930 Authored Behaviourist Manifesto cant scientifically study the subjective mind bc its untestableBehaviorism Environmental Determinism or Cultural Determinism impiricism culture determines who you are born a blank slate everyone is sculpted by their experiencesEthology Primarily interested in natural behaviour ie hens throwing away egg shells imprinting dance language of honeybees innate fixedaction patterns animal communicationKarl con Frisch konrad Lorenz niko TinbergenTopics included imprinting animal communication innate fixedaction patterns Is any bhvr actually innateWell theyre all modified bydepend upon experience even in animals Some soecies will learn certain things others will not be able to Problems with Dualism Problem 1 Brain damage has an impact on psychological functioning therefore the mind is not independet of the brain ExampleOliver Sackss case study of a man with asomatognosia Deficiency in awareness of parts of ones own bodywhen feeling his leg he thought it was someone elses Difference in the mind due to damage to the right parietal lobeOften peoples personalities change with brain damage Problems with Dualism Problem 2 Chimps show psychological ie human abilitiesFor exampleGallups research on chimp selfawarenessChimps spontaneously groom themselves in mirrorMirror test red mark put on the forehead of a knocked out chimp Chimps examine and touch red mark on their own face seen in mirror indicating self awareness Other animals do have minds and many things that we believe are uniquely human traits are actually not Dolphins primates and birds all display human traitsNature via NurtureInteractionismnaturenurture They work together to explain howwhy we are Human Evolution While Darwin was not the first to propose that species evolve he was the first to compile supporting evidence and to suggest how evolution works Darwin argued that evolution occurs through natural selection Human Evolution Evidence for Evolution Darwin didnt come up with evolution theory but he came up with a way to compile supporting evidenceGo from two genes in one cell to a human being Genes interact with the individual their enviro and their experiences developed over time some get expressed others do notgiving rise to the phenotype displayed Changes in genes across generations Anything that is learned depends on biology and
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