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Lecture

Psychology 2310A/B Lecture Notes - Dissociative Identity Disorder, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Fugue State

5 pages57 viewsWinter 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2310A/B
Professor
Rod Martin

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Dissociative Disorders
The Dissociation Continuum
Dissociation a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception
Mild dissociation is very common
- E.g., déjà vu, absorption, daydreaming
Continuum of “dissociative ability”
Related to hypnotic susceptibility, absorption
Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)
Can become a defense mechanism way of coping with stress, trauma
Historical rise and fall of interest in dissociation
Late 1800s high; early 20th C low; 1980s, 90s high
Today low again (over-diagnosis, exaggerated claims, false memory syndrome).
Dissociative Disorders in DSM-IV
Dissociative Amnesia
Dissociative Fugue
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (previously Multiple Personality Disorder)
Depersonalization Disorder
Dissociative Amnesia
Person is unable to recall important personal information
Amnesia is usually for autobiographical memory not general knowledge
Usually after a very stressful experience
Information is not permanently lost
Often remits spontaneously after a few days
But can occasionally become chronic or recurrent
Ct. organic amnesia
Types of Amnesia
Localized loss of memory for circumscribed period of time
Selective some but not all events during specific time period
Generalized loss of memory for entire life
Continuous loss of memories subsequent to a specific time up to the present
Systematized specific categories of information (eg, particular person).
Dissociative Fugue
Sudden, unexpected travel away from home with inability to recall one’s past
Confusion about personal identity or assumption of a new identity otherwise seems normal
Can last for hours to months to years
Usually associated with life stress
Typically spontaneous, rapid recovery
Relatively rare (0.2 %)
Often comorbid with mood disorders, substance abuse
Case of Jeff Ingram video
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Depersonalization Disorder
Frequently feeling detached from one’s mental processes or body
Feeling like “in a dream”
Reality testing remains intact
Significant distress or impairment
Numbness, “derealization”
A common experience at mild levels (50%)
Adolescence; life-threatening trauma; life stress
Also common symptom of other disorders eg, PTSD, depression, panic disorder
Somatoform Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Soma = body
Physical symptoms not explained by a medical condition
Different from:
Psychophysiological conditions (“psychosomatic” illnesses)
Malingering
Factitious Disorders
Thorough medical examination essential for diagnosis
Medically unexplained syndromes are very common although rarely diagnosed as somatoform disorders
unless evidence of contributing psychological factors
Somatoform Disorders in DSM-IV
Conversion disorder
Somatization disorder
Pain disorder
Body dysmorphic disorder
Hypochondriasis
Conversion Disorder
Freud “conversion hysteria”
One or more symptoms affecting voluntary motor or sensory function
Symptoms mimic a neurological condition
E.g., blindness, paralysis, seizures, visceral
Failure to conform to physiological patterns
Often stress-related
“la belle indifférence” – once thought to be
a diagnostic sign
Lifetime prevalence between 1% and 3%
Women > Men
Late childhood to early adulthood
A case of conversion disorder in a dog (!)
Should it be classified as a dissociative disorder?
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