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Canada (511,349)
Psychology (6,277)
Rod Martin (58)


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Psychology 2310A/B
Rod Martin

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Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Controversial Diagnosis DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic Criteria 1. Two or more distinct identities or personality states Each has its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to environment, self 2. Recurrently take control of person’s behaviour 3. Loss of memory for personal information 4. Not due to physiological effect of a substance or general medical condition Associated Features Often history of severe childhood abuse Post-traumatic symptoms High rates of comorbidity – depression, anxiety, borderline personality, suicide, substance abuse, PTSD, eating disorders Self-mutilation, suicide attempts, aggression Destructive relationships Usually highly hypnotizable, dissociative tendencies Course Tends to be chronic and recurrent More common in women than men (3 – 9 x) Women tend to have more identities Typically diagnosed at 29 – 35 years Average of 6-7 years between first symptom presentation and diagnosis of DID Common “alters” The Host; usually the actual person The Child The Avenger The Protector The Trauma Repository The Narcissist The Helper History of DID Extremely rare until 30 years ago – only about 100-200 cases reported before the 1980s 1957 – “Three Faces of Eve” 1970s – “Sybil” - book, film Drew media attention to multiple personality – woman with 15 different personalities 1980’s – dramatic increase in cases, added to DSM Growing clinical interest Therapy books, journal articles Conferences, professional associations By 1990s 40,000 cases 1990s – False Memory Syndrome controversy – growing concerns – lawsuits ; under hypnosis therapists were probing patients to think they were abused 2000s – dramatic drop-off in numbers of cases Trauma Theory of DID A “Diathesis – Stress” model; stress would be some sort of abuse occurring in childhood Stress: Childhood - severe trauma, abuse Diathesis: High dissociativ
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