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Lecture

Psychology 2310A/B Lecture Notes - John Bowlby, Nosology, Attachment Theory

6 pages76 viewsFall 2012

Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2310A/B
Professor
Rod Martin

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Theoretical Perspectives on Abnormal Psychology (cont’d)
Integrative Approaches - Systems Theory: Biopsychosocial
Holism (vs. reductionism)
- Reductionism (biological); always looking at the lowest level of analysis to try and get
answers (e.g., abnormality in the biochemistry of the brain would be the best explanation
for why someone is having a mental health problem)
- Holistic - there are different levels of analysis, and the sum is greater than the individual
investigation of its parts
Different levels of analysis
Biological - biochemistry, neurotransmitters, hormones, physiology, brain structures,
genetics
Psychological the “mind” – memory, learning, cognition, schemas, behavior, emotions,
self-concept, early life experiences
Social relationships, family, culture, SES, gender, societal values
Emergent properties higher levels cannot be completely explained by lower levels
- At a psychological level, that cannot be fully explained at the biological level
Disturbance at one level affects other levels
Intervention at one level affects other levels
- If you have some sort of abnormality in the brain (genetic or biochemical abnormality)
this is obviously going to affect the way you think and feel
- But, the reverse is also true - the attitudes that we have, the behaviours that we have, can
also affect the biological level of the brain
Multiple causality
- It could be different factors causing the disorders in certain people/more than one factor
causing it
Example: Emotion
E.g., depression, anxiety, anger
Causes of emotion at all levels of the hierarchy:
Social emotions help us maintain interpersonal connectedness, fulfill social needs,
respond to changes in our social environment (family, peer group, workplace)
Psychological learning, memories, cognitions evoke particular emotions in
particular situations based on past learning experiences
Biological brain systems, neurons, neurotransmitters, biochemistry underlie all
emotions
Emotional disturbance can occur at any level
Interventions at higher levels can affect lower levels, and vice versa
Psychoanalytic vs. Behavioural Approach
Psychoanalysis
Focus on inner mental events
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Unconscious determinants
Focus on past
“Symptoms”
Treatment: insight, resolve conflicts
Behaviorism
Focus on external behavior
Environmental determinants
Focus on present
“Problems”
Modify behavior change environment
Psychoanalytic Theory - Freud
Evolutionary Basis of Freudian Theory
- Freud argued that everything we do comes from the drives of sex and aggression
- Freud was very influenced by Charles Darwin‟s theory of evolution
- When we think from an evolutionary point of view, the most important thing we can do
is reproduce and pass on your genes to the next generation (through sex)
- In order to reproduce, you have to compete with other people of your own species and
other species (aggression)
Id ancient animal legacy
Limbic system
Sexuality reproduction
Aggression competition
Ego evolved thinking capacities
Neocortex reasoning, problem-solving
Superego culture
Norms, rules, prohibitions
Drives, defense mechanisms
Therapy: “make the unconscious conscious”
Insight-oriented
More Recent Developments in Psychodynamic Approach
Object Relations Theory
- Influenced by Freud in the way people think about psychological problems
- almost identical to Jung‟s schema theory
- don‟t put emphasis on sexual and aggressive drives, but instead on relationships
(particularly with our parents) influence the kind of person that we are
- Parents are the most powerful people in your life and have the most influence on you
when you are growing up
Rejection of “drive” theory
Focus on Relationships (esp. parents)
“Objects” – internalized representations of self and others (cf. schemas)
The Self Concept develops in early relationships
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