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Lecture 9

Lecture 9; personality disorders.docx

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Psychology 2310A/B
Rod Martin

Schizophrenia contdBiological Aspects of SchizophreniaGeneticsMonozygotic concordance rate48 PolygenicNot one but many different genes Produces varying degree of vulnerability across individuals Schizophrenic spectrum concept Diathesisstress modelsBiochemistryDopamine HypothesisDopamine is involved in movement cognition memory attention problem solving motivation and pleasure sociability 3 Dopamine subsystems Nigrostriatalsubstantia nigra basal ganglia Parkinsons disease Mesolimbiclimbic systemreward Mesocortical frontal lobes motor areas D2 receptorspositive symptoms delusions hallucinations benefit from antipsychotics D1 receptorsnegative symptomsinadequate receptor binding Antipsychotics can make these worse Evidence for dopamine hypothesis Effects of antipsychotic drugs Effects of drugs that increase dopamine amphetamines cocaine LDopa Excess dopamine production ReceptorsunclearOther neurotransmitters norepinephrine glutamate serotonin GABANeurophysiologyStructural and functional abnormalities Different patterns in different patients No integrated model of neural pathology Enlarged lateral ventriclesCortical atrophyesp frontal lobes also temporal lobes basal ganglia Frontal lobe hypofrontality executive functions avolition personality change working memory Left temporal lobethought disorder bizarre language memory selective attention Right temporal lobeflat affect aprosodia poor discrimination of facial emotion Basal gangliaabnormal motor behaviorrocking pacing stereotyped movementsAntipsychotic Neuroleptic MedicationsTraditional Antipsychotics1950s60s eg Chlorpromazine Haloperidol Block postsynaptic dopamine receptors Reduce positive symptoms but not negativeAtypical antipsychotics1990s eg Clozapine Risperidone Olanzapine
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