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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2310A/B
Professor
Rod Martin
Semester
Fall

Description
Behavioral and Cognitive­Behavioral Approaches Behavioral Approach Two types of conditioning • Respondent (Classical) o Automatic responses o Autonomic NS o Eliciting stimuli o Antecedents • Operant (Instrumental) o Voluntary actions, behaviors o Somatic NS o Reinforcing stimuli o Consequences Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov • A form of learning in which the conditioned stimulus of CS, comes to signal the occurrence of s  second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus • The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus • The unconditioned stimulus is usually a biologically significant stimulus such as food or pain that  elicits a response from the start (the unconditioned response) • The conditioned stimulus usually produces no particular response at first, but after conditioning it  elicits the conditioned response • Behaviour emitted by the subject is strengthened or weakened by its consequences Classical Conditioning in Daily Life • Emotional responses • Phobias – two­factor model • Classical conditioning of fear • Avoidance of stimulus (negative reinforcement – operant conditioning) • Systematic Desensitization (Wolpe) • Based on Extinction • Develop a hierarchy of fears (SUDS) • Train relaxation response • Imaginable exposure – associate feared stimuli with relaxation instead of trauma B.F. Skinner – Operant Conditioning • A type of learning in which an individual’s behaviour is modified by its consequences; the  behaviour 
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