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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2310A/B
Professor
Rod Martin
Semester
Fall

Description
Anxiety Disorders Fear, Anxiety, and Panic • Fear and anxiety – adaptive emotions o Fear is the emotion that we have when confronted with a situation that is immediate  danger to our current situation o Anxiety is more a vague concern about our psychological well being   Ex. Being worried that you are going to fail a course causing you to be unable to  sleep, think straight, etc o We need fear in our lives in order to control us from doing things that could harm us  (jumping off a building) o Anxiety can also be a good thing, kind of like a conscience • Autonomic arousal – fight­flight response o Activation of the sympathetic nervous system  Increased HR, BP, GSR, muscle tension o Decreased gastric activity • Experiential aspects o Feeling irritable • Cognitive symptoms o Thoughts of danger, worrying about things happening (becoming hyper vigilant ▯ constantly being very alert of dangers around you) • Behavioral symptoms o Wanting to escape/avoid things they are afraid of • Evolutionary basis of anxiety – genetic variability o There is genetic variation that causes some people to be more prone to anxiety than  others • Pathological when: o Excessive, irrational, uncontrollable o Interferes with functioning • Anxiety Disorders are the most common group of mental disorders – 25% lifetime prevalence • High personal and societal costs o Loss of relationships o Drug and/or alcohol abuse Major DSM­IV Anxiety Disorders • Panic Disorder • Phobias (including Specific Phobias, Social Phobia, and Agoraphobia) • Obsessive­Compulsive Disorder • Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder (and Acute Stress Disorder) • Ggeneralized Anxiety Disorder Changes in DSM­5 (not on exam) • Anxiety Disorders o Specific phobia; Social anxiety disorder o Panic disorder; Agoraphobia o Generalized anxiety disorder o Separation anxiety disorder; Selective mutism • Obsessive­compulsive and related disorders o Obsessive­compulsive disorder o Body dysmorphic disorder o Hoarding disorder; Trichotillomania; Excoriation • Trauma and Stressor­related Disorders o Post­traumatic stress disorder; Acute stress disorder o Adjustment disorder; Reactive attachment disorder Specific Phobia Criteria for diagnosis of a Specific Phobia • Persistent, excessive, unreasonable fear cued by a specific object or situation • Provokes anxiety response (panic)  • Recognized by the sufferer as excessive, unreasonable • Phobic situation is avoided or endured with intense distress • Interferes significantly with functioning, or marked distress about having phobia o Elevator phobia example ▯ was going to lose her job if she didn’t get over her phobia Types of Specific Phobias • Animal (snakes, spiders, birds, etc) • Natural Environment (heights, storms, water, etc) • Blood­Injection­Injury (needles) o Only phobia where there is a drop in blood pressure (fainting is common) • Situation (airplanes, elevators, enclosed places, etc) • Other (fear of vomiting, clowns, etc) Specific Phobias (cont’d) • Lifetime prevalence 7 – 15% o Percentage of people in the population that could be diagnosed in their lifetime • 2:1 women: men • Typically begin in childhood, early adolescence • May or may not involve traumatic experience • Phobias persisting into adulthood rarely remit Social Phobia • Persistent, irrational fear linked to social or performance situations • Fear of negative evaluation (being humiliated or embarrassed) o Fear of public speaking, urinating in public washrooms, eating in front of others • Person recognizes fear is excessive • Behavioral inhibition, avoidance • Significantly interferes with functioning Social Phobia (cont’d) • Lifetime prevalence 3 – 13% • Men = women • Typically begins in mid­teens (when people become aware of peer evaluation) • Chronic course • Severity may fluctuate with stress • Comorbid conditions very common – specific phobias, depression, alcohol dependence, and  agoraphobia o Comorbidity: person has more than one diagnosed mental disorder • Onset of social phobia usually precedes other conditions         Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • Person experienced or witnessed a traumatic event involving actual or threatened death,  serious injury, or other personal harm  o Rape, war, childhood sexual abuse, natural disaster, terrorist attack, etc • The event created intense fear, horror, or a sense of helplessness at the time they were in the  situation Three clusters of symptoms in PTSD • Re­experiencing of the trauma o Distressing images, thoughts, perceptions o Dreams, flashbacks • Avoidance and numbing (dissociative symptoms) o Avoiding activities, people, places o Feelings of det
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