Psychology 2310A/B Lecture Notes - Epigenetics, Social Environment, Social Skills

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Environmental / Psychosocial Factors in Schizophrenia
Prenatal/Perinatal Factors
oHypoxia at birth
oInfluenza during pregnancy
oStress – Diathesis-stress model
oPsychotic episodes often follow periods of high stress
oInteraction between life stress and genetic vulnerability
Family communication patterns
o“Expressed emotion”
oCritical comments, hostility, emotional over involvement, lack of warmth
oIncreased risk of relapse
Social Class
oStrong negative association between SES and risk of schizophrenia
oSociogenic theory
oSocial drift hypothesis
oSocial environment can affect the regulation, expression, and function of
oRat studies (McGill U.)
oMaternal care (licking, grooming, nursing)
oExpression of genes in hippocampus
oRegulation of stress response (HPA axis)
oDifferences in reactivity to stress later in life
Research with humans
oSimilar changes in gene expression in brain related to childhood abuse and
oGenes implicated in schizophrenia, mood disorders
Genetic–Environment Interaction
Finnish Adoption Study
21-year follow-up
Psychosocial Treatments
Family therapy
Social skills training
Stress management training
Cognitive-behaviour therapy
CBT vs. Supportive Counseling – Effects on Symptoms of Psychosis
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