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Psychology 2320A/B Lecture Notes - Etiology, Cognitive Model, Panic Attack

Course Code
Elizabeth Hayden

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10/30/2012 Lecture Notes
Topics: Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescence
Anxiety, generally speaking
Short overview of modern classification
Prevalence and associated features
Etiological theories and models
Normative and Clinical Anxiety
Anxiety has physical, cognitive, and behavioural manifestations (see table 7-1 in text)
Anxiety is normal and often adaptive
o Anxiety/fear in childhood is common (see table 7-2)
o Rituals almost common
To diagnose, fears need to be persistent, excessive when compare to same-age children, cause
Anxiety in Youth: Recent Classification Issues
DSM-III and III-R had multiple anxiety disorders specific to children
DSM-IV: child-specific diagnoses reduced, criteria applicable to children and adults developed
o DSM-5 goes even further with separation anxiety disorder
Current: All 9 DSM-IV anxiety disorders concern a fearful/anxious response of some kind
o Focus of the anxious fear and its expression differs across diagnostic categories
In DSM-IV, there are nine major Ads, including one specific (sort of) to children
o Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) predominantly child onset
o Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) predominantly child and adolescent onset
o Panic disorder (PD) predominantly adolescent onset
o Social phobia predominantly adolescent onset
o Specific phobia predominantly child onset
o Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) predominantly child and adolescent onset
o Agoraphobia without panic disorder (will not be discussed in class)
o Post-traumatic stress disorder (will not be discussed in class)
o Acute stress disorder (will not be discussed in class)
Anxiety in Youth: DSM-IV Separation Anxiety Disorder
Only anxiety disorder described by DSM-IV as an anxiety disorder of childhood
o Onset usually age 7-8
Excessive fear over separating from home or attachment figure (e.g. parent)
Fear is excessive for developmental stage
o Separation anxiety is common between 7 months to age 6
Anxiety in Youth: DSM-IV Generalized Anxiety Disorder
GAD: uncontrollable, excessive worry about multiple domains, more days than not, for at least 6
o Worry + at least one other symptom of anxiety, which may include restlessness, fatigue,
muscle tension, sleep disturbance
o Onset usually between 10-14 years of age
GAD has low inter-rater reliability, rarely occurs without another comorbid disorder
Anxiety in Youth: DSM-IV Specific Phobia
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