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Abnormal Psyc Class 3.docx

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Psychology 2320A/B

Abnormal Psyc. Class 3 1/22/2013 10:30:00 AM Topics for today  Wrap up methods  Diagnosis and classification o Why classify o History of DSM for Mental Disorders (various editions) o Current status and ongoing issues in psychiatric diagnosis  Assessment Research on etiology in psychopathology: genetically informed designs • Association studies: is a gene variant associated with a disorder?  Usually study genes that regulate neurotransmission • Problem: disorders are likely caused by multiple (unknown) genes  New approach: genome-wide association • Problem: people prob inherit “vulnerability genes”, not “disorder genes”  Endophenotypes • Problem: GXE (gene by environment) may be present  Diathesis-stress models READ UP ON NEUROIMAGING TECHNIQUES – ITS IMPORTANT (like CAT, PET, MRI, how youd use those measures, etc). Research…psychopathology: observational measures • Parenting; child behavior; marital interaction • Why observational measures?  Even though limited sample of behavior, observational measures are still important to get. Prevention and Intervention Designs • If negative outcomes decrease based on an intervention/prevention strategy, causal mechanism can be supported • For example, PKU genetic disorder • Prevention designs are generally rare. PKU related to Phenyl alanine which is related to retardation in kids. Analog studies of psychopathology • Animal models  Usually provide greater experimental control • Nonclinical sample (e.g. you guys!)  Mood induction studies • Both have problems with generalizability KNOW THESE THINGS LISTED BELOW IN BOLD FOR MIDTERM EPIDEMIOLOGY…. • Prevalence: the proportion of the population that has a disorder during a given period….. • INCIDENCE… Modern Psychiatric Epidemiology • Prior to 1980s, quality of information was poor • Studies of adults:  1980: Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) Study  1994: National Co-morbidity Survey (NCS) • Studies of children are less common and more complicated  A Main reason is that the experimenter is unsure who to ask about the child? Brother? Parent? Teacher? Etc.. they’d all say diff things about the child. NCS produced higher prevalence rates in psychopathology than did the ECA. Prevalence and Development of Psychiatric Disorders in Childhod and Adolescence • Longitudinal study of 1420 unselected children aged 9-13 (note: most epidemiological studies have 10s of 1000s of participants) • Children were followed-up (generally every year) until age 16 • What is the prevalence and incidence of childhood disorder • What is the heterotypic and homotypic continuity of childhood psychopathology. (you should know these bold terms for midterm) • Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) used  a structured clinical interview • Child and parent are both asked about the presence of child psychiatric symptoms • If either endorses a symptom, it is counted as present. • Three-month prevalence of any disorder was 13% • “Lifetime” prevalence (for the duration of the study) of any disorder was 37% (31% of females, 42% of males) • Children with a diagnosis at any time were 3 times more likely to have a diagnosis later on • Homotypic continuity significant • Heterotypic continuity significant  anxiety and depression  ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder • Girls had higher than boys on heterotypic continuity and comorbidity  In other words, although fewer females than males had a disorder, females tended to be more severe when ill WHAT IS CLASSIFICATION? • Classification of mental disorders: a branch of psychiatry/clinical psychology concerned with description of disorder  Based on symptoms; course Advantages of Classification • Theory • Description  Essential for research of any kind • Prediction • Communication Drawbacks of Classification • Labeling • Expectancy fulfillment/self-fulfilling prophecy  e.g. treat child differently because of these expectations they can
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