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Lecture 2

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Western University
Psychology 2320A/B
Elizabeth Hayden

Tuesday, January-15-13  Diathesis stress model (last lecture)  The cycle of violence (caspi et al.(2002) role of genotype on the cycle of violence in maltreated children) o Childhood maltreatmentadult antiscocial behavior  Most maltreated children do not become antisocial  Dependent on genetic risk for antisocial behaviour?  MAOA gene o Codes MAOA enzyme which breaks down (metabolizes) neurotransmitters(NE, 5-HT, DA)  Metabolism may be important for regulating stress response  Two alleles: low and high metabolic activity of enzyme  Basically saying that there are 2 alleles that depending on the genetic extent of one which have the alleles will either make them better or worse at handling stress.  Longitudinal study of >400 males  Outcome: adult antisocial behavior  Predictors: MAOA genotype (low MAOA activity vs high) and childhood maltreatment  Etiological Theories of disorder o Etiological theories explain the origin of abnormal behavior o Good theories yield hypotheses that can be empirically evaluated o Resulting hypotheses are either supported or falsified the theory is either supported modified or rejected o Theories are more likely to drop out of favor than they are to be rejected o There are no monocausal theories of anything that are correct o Reflects the complexity of abnormal human behaviour o (end of chapter 2 theories)  Research in Child Psychology o Research on etiology o Research on treatment  Research in child psychopathology Background o Good research tests specific hypotheses based on theory o Hypothesis: prediction about relationship between constructs  Construct: a psychological abstraction that must be operationalized for research (eg/intelligence, depression)  Operationalizing in psychology is typically not clear  Cannot be proven only supported (or not) by data  Can (and should) test many different ways o Once you’ve operationalized your constructs (and received approval), you next.... o Collect data 9i.e scores on the constructs of interest) o Conduct a statistical tests o Yields probability that results due to chance (p
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