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Psychology 2320A/B
Elizabeth Hayden

January, 22nd, 2013  Studying the brain (in the book read it) o Neuro-imaging  Observational Measures o Parenting, child behaviour marital interaction o Why?  Asking the questions are the affordable and easier way to get the info but, there is a concern for the accuracy of the reports(because the parents don’t have a sense of how children are, or social desirability etc)....therefore observational measures would be best  Possible issues  , the sample is going to be limited  They would act differently because they are being recorded.  Research on etiology in psychopathology: Prevention and Intervention Designs o If negative outcomes decrease based on an intervention/prevention strategy , causal mechanism can be supported o For example, PKU genetic disorder example of gene X environmental interaction o Prevention designs are generally rare  Research on etiology in psychopathology: Analog studies of psychopathology o Animal models  Usually provide greater experimental control o Nonclinical samples(eg./students)  Mood induction studies o Both may have problems with generalizability  Concepts in Epidemiology(read the section) o Prevalence: the proportion of the population o Incidence: the number of new occurrence of a  Modern Psychiatric Epidemiology o Prior to 1980’s quality of information was poor o Studies of adults  1980: epidemiological catchment area (ECA) study the ECA may have underestimated the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders  1994: national comorbidity survey (NCS) o Studies of children are less common and are complicated  Costello et al. (2003) prevelance and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescences o Longitudinal study of 1420 unselected children aged 9-13 o Children were followed-up(generally every year) until age 16 o What is the prevalence and incidence of childhood disorder? o What is the heterotypic and homotypic continuity of childhood psychopathology? o Child and adolescent psychiatric assessment (CAPA) used  Structured clinical interview o Child and parent are both asked about the presence of child psychiatric symptoms o If either endorses a symptom it is counted as present o Three-month prevalence of any disorder was 13% o “lifetime” prevalence (for the duration of the study) of any disorder was 37% (31% of females and 42% of males) o Children with a diagnosis are any time were 3X more likely to have a diagnosis later on o Homotypic continuity significant o Heterotypic continuity significant  Anxiety and depression  ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder if a kid had ADHD more likely to have oppositional defiant disorder o Girls>boys on heterotypic continuity and comorbidity  In other words although fewer females than males had disorder females tended to be more severe when ill  What is classification? o Classification of mental disorders: branch of psychiatry/clinical psychology concerned with description of disorder  Based on symptoms course  Advantages of classification o Theory o Description  Essential for research of any kind o Prediction o Communication  Drawbacks of Classification o Labeling o Expectancy fulfillment/self-fulfilling prophecy can lead people to behave in a way that they wouldn't otherwise if they weren’t diagnosed o Loss of information or uniqueness o Boundary cases  “Procrustean”  Evolution of DSM o DSM: Classification system for mental disorders o Five major versions  DSM-I (1952)  DS
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