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Psychology 2320A/B Lecture Notes - Caffeine, Psychoanalytic Theory, Biological Psychiatry

Course Code
Elizabeth Hayden

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January, 22nd, 2013
Studying the brain (in the book read it)
o Neuro-imaging
Observational Measures
o Parenting, child behaviour marital interaction
o Why?
Asking the questions are the affordable and easier way to get the info but, there is a
concern for the accuracy of the reports(because the parents don’t have a sense of how
children are, or social desirability etc)....therefore observational measures would be best
Possible issues
, the sample is going to be limited
They would act differently because they are being recorded.
Research on etiology in psychopathology: Prevention and Intervention Designs
o If negative outcomes decrease based on an intervention/prevention strategy , causal mechanism
can be supported
o For example, PKU genetic disorder example of gene X environmental interaction
o Prevention designs are generally rare
Research on etiology in psychopathology: Analog studies of psychopathology
o Animal models
Usually provide greater experimental control
o Nonclinical samples(eg./students)
Mood induction studies
o Both may have problems with generalizability
Concepts in Epidemiology(read the section)
o Prevalence: the proportion of the population
o Incidence: the number of new occurrence of a
Modern Psychiatric Epidemiology
o Prior to 1980’s quality of information was poor
o Studies of adults
1980: epidemiological catchment area (ECA) study the ECA may have underestimated
the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders
1994: national comorbidity survey (NCS)
o Studies of children are less common and are complicated
Costello et al. (2003) prevelance and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and
o Longitudinal study of 1420 unselected children aged 9-13
o Children were followed-up(generally every year) until age 16
o What is the prevalence and incidence of childhood disorder?
o What is the heterotypic and homotypic continuity of childhood psychopathology?
o Child and adolescent psychiatric assessment (CAPA) used
Structured clinical interview
o Child and parent are both asked about the presence of child psychiatric symptoms
o If either endorses a symptom it is counted as present
o Three-month prevalence of any disorder was 13%
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