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Western University
Psychology 2320A/B
Elizabeth Hayden

January 29, 2012 Structured Interviews: Tied to a particular set of criteria They spell out what questions to ask, how to ask to ask them and how to follow them up (often), how to interpret and code the answers (often), what order to ask them in Questionnaire Measures: Not formally used for diagnosis; widely used in research and practice to get information on child symptoms Achenbach family of measures: -CBCL -TRF (preschool and school-age versions) -YSR = Youth Self Report (school age) -adult versions Parent-Child Disagreement on Child Symptoms: Issues with interviews and checklist Parents > children for child externalizing behaviour and symptoms; may be more accurate for these -externalizing = disruptive, oppositional, defiant, rule breaking, etc. Children > parents for child internalizing symptoms; may be more accurate for these -internalizing = sad mood, fear, anxiety Self-report important for internalizing symptoms; informants important for externalizing Does Psychotherapy Work? : Do psychotherapy patients improve? Does one approach work better than the others? Is psychotherapy better than medication? Psychotherapy Outcome Research- Sampling Issues: Sample homogeneity -participants screened for other diagnoses, age, language, intellectual ability,, etc. to form a homogenous group Allows specific claims re: who will be helped by treatment Increases statistical power to detect effects However, limits generalizability Psychotherapy Outcome Research- The IV: In psychotherapy research, the IV is… Like any IV, must be operationalizes To do this, treatment studies develop a treatment manual -overview of principles therapy -Session-by-session guidelines Psychotherapy Outcome Research- Acceptability and Attrition: Acceptability= how tolerable a treatment or therapy is to a patient If acceptability is low, this may lead to… Attrition= drop outs from a study Psychotherapy Outcome Research- Early Findings Meta-analysis: combines results from many studies to get an overall estimate of effect Smith, Glass, and Miller (1980) meta-analysis of psychotherapy with adults -Psychotherapy effect size = .85 -ex. Average psychotherapy patient was better off post-treatment than over 80% of persons who went untreated -major classes of psychotherapy were equivalent in terms of efficacy “Dodo bird” Verdict: Run around the lake until you dry, no one cared how long they had run, can’t distinguish “winners,” everyone is great -idea that nature of schools is totally comparable in term of how well they help people -evidence for the role of nonspecific factors in psychotherapy Dodo Bird Cont’d: Hotly contested (especially by behaviour therapists) -“Garbage In, Garbage Out” (insufficient screening of included studies) Still actively debated Majority opinion: some disorders- few differences in efficacy across several approaches (eg. Major depression) others- important differences (eg. OCD) But what about the Children?! : Weisz et al. (1987) meta-analysis of psychotherapy with children Overall effect size= .79 -ex. Average psychotherapy patient is better off post-treatment than 79% of children who go untreated -BT effect size= .88, Non-BT effect size =.44 -Major classes psychotherapy for children and adolescents were NOT equivalent in terms of efficacy Psychotherapy O
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