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Lecture

Psychology 2320A/B Lecture Notes - Developmental Psychopathology, Longitudinal Study, Psychopathology


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2320A/B
Professor
Elizabeth Hayden

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Introduction to Developmental Psychopathology; Conceptual Models of
Psychopathology & Risk
The developmental psychopathology perspective on abnormal child psychology
Normal and abnormal behaviour are (usually) on a shared continuum
oOnly if they act abnormally on a continual basis, in all situations, too anxious to
leave parents ever
Developmental pathways
oLife course perspective
What happens to certain disorders in children as they grow over time?
oPrecursors and consequences of disorder
Things that predict and are outcomes of disorders
Understanding resilience is as important as understanding risk
oThe presence of positive outcomes despite exposure to negative risk factors
Holistic views of children
oInterested in factors that are extrinsic and intrinsic in understanding child
outcomes
oLook at all the outcomes, situations (whole)
oLook at language development, IQ and autistic abilities in order to fully
determine view
Directedness of children
oCharacteristics of kids determine the amount of attention what kind of support
they receive
oLook at situational factors which are associated with negative disorders, however
must look at negative outcome actually causing certain negative situational
factors (important, relevant to other things)
Lawfulness of behaviour
oExpect behaviour over time will be lawful
oCan reliably identify certain behaviours with certain outcomes – lawful
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Stress  depression
oStability across time – lawful
High anxiety children will continue to show anxiety into their adulthood
oHomotypic continuity – behaviour (e.g., disorder) remains stable in form over
time
For ex, T1 depression  T2 depression
oHeterotypic continuity – behaviour changes its form across time
For ex, T1 anxiety  T2 depression
Increased risk for other disorders in the future, from having a certain
disorder as an adolescent
Equifinality – all caterpillars look different but turn into the same butterfly – in relation to
kids – those with certain similar starting points are all linked to depression
oi.e., genetic risk, early environmental risk, cognitive risk, parenting risk – all lead
to depression – the same outcome
oTherefore not one cause to certain outcomes, hard to measure in retrospect
oMakes longitudinal studies extremely important
Multifinality – two plants start the same but end at different points – same genetics
different environment
oPoor early parenting leads to depression, leads to anxiety, leads to extreme
behaviour
oSerotonin disorder leads to depression, anxiety, aggression, etc.
oEarly risks can lead to multiple negative outcomes in combination or singular
oMakes longitudinal studies extremely important as well
How do we decide whether someone has a disorder?
Bunch of different examples, from monsters under bed to can’t open mouth to breathe in
elevator, must define disorder and must look at whole picture in-depth and how it affects
the person
What constitutes abnormal behaviour?
Personal distress/impairment
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