Psychology 2320A/B Lecture Notes - Major Depressive Episode, Mania, Bipolar Disorder

9 views7 pages
13 Nov 2012
Mood Disorders
Depression versus Mania- euphoric (two different problems with moods)
- People who experience depression also experience mania in their life.
DSM-IV distinguishes two general patterns:
Unipolar depression only
Bipolar both mania and depression.
Unipolar Depression
―Normal‖ depression- why do we have depression? Anxiety that is an emotion that’s important but when it’s
excessive and uncontrollable then it becomes pathological, like depression
Psychological pain‖- we have pain cause its adaptive- and that pain is a signal o you to protect your
body. Depression has primarily to do with how we are social animals; small groups and we need
support for protection. Evolutionary point of view-depression is like pain when there is a break with
our social connectedness. As a result from broken relationship.
- Failure
DSM-IV categories:
- Major depression
- Dysthymic disorder (Dysthymia)
- Adjustment disorder with depressed mood** often used when people are experiencing a mild level
of depression following a stress hold event.
- Common cold‖
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, according to WHO
Costs more in treatment and lost productivity than anything but heart disease
- Even cancer, depression costs more
Canada $14.4 billion per year
Treatment, lost productivity
DSM: Major Depressive Episode- the begin by defining the criteria for saying that someone is having
a depressive episode, not a diagnosis yet.
- 5 or more symptoms lasting 2+ weeks
- Most of the day nearly every day
- Mood symptoms (one must be present):
o Depressed mood- MODNED feeling blue, hopeless, discouraged down in the dumps,
negative mood.
o Loss of interest or pleasure in activities (anhedonia)- markly diminished enjoyment in
- Physical symptoms: - vegetative signs
o Significant weight loss or gain- comfort food
o Insomnia or hypersomnia- no sleeping or excessive
o Psychomotor agitation (person is very fidgety, cant stop moving) or retardation (everything
slows down, no expression, no energy to move a muscle)
o Fatigue, loss of energy. —Lack of motivation doesn’t feel like do anything, vicious cycle can
- Cognitive Symptoms:
o Feelings of worthlessness or guilt- neg. feeling about themselves- can come to a point of
delusion. A real loss of contact with reality. A belief that is clearly not true. A delusion of
guilt that they have done some terrible thing that they cant be forgiven for.
o Diminished ability to think or concentrate- distracted, their work gets inefficient,
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation
- Symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning
- NB depression is a ―syndrome‖. - Number of symptoms that all go together- include mood, bodily,
biological aspect (weight gain, no sleep) and cognitive symptoms.
Major Depressive Disorder
- Presence of Major Depressive Episode- at least one major depressive episode.
- No history of manic or hypomanic episodes
- Subtypes: Single episode vs. recurrent- they can recover, or it can be recurring that they’ll have
multiple episodes of depression from time to time, so in that case recurrent major depressive
- Specifiers:
o Mild, (still able to function daily but takes lots of effort.) moderate, severe without
psychotic features, severe with psychotic features (psychotic symptoms: delusions and
hallucination, people with depression can have a loss of contact with reality. Delusion more
common then hallucinations. )
o Atypical oversleep, overeat, weight gain, anxiety- too typical
o With Catatonic features very immobile, rigid curling up in a ball, shutting off the world
around them.
o With Melancholic features- high biological basis for this where the person has extreme
o With Postpartum onset- when a women because depressed after having a baby. - Within 4
weeks. Some hormonal changes? Reduction in the progesterone has an anti-anxiety effect
in the brain.
o With Seasonal pattern. - Depressed during specific times like winter. ** Melatonin
How common is clinical depression?
- In any given year: 1,500,000 Canadians (400,000 people in Ontario)
- At any one time: approximately 6% of women and 3% of men
- Lifetime prevalence: approximately 12% of women and 6% of men
- Prevalence has increased dramatically over the past century- twice as commonwestern culture**
- WHO: leading cause of disability worldwide
- 2:1 ratio Women: Men some suggest that it might have to do with hormone, genetics or
sociocultural factors, women are more vulnerable to stress, caregiver, lower income
- First episodes usually adolescence or early adulthood, but can happen at any age
- Typically (episodes by depression) precipitated by a severe stressor
- Episodes typically last 6 months to 1 year avg 9 months, but untreated.
- A person who has one episode of depression will, on average, go on to have 5 or 6 episodes
o 1 episode: 50% risk of a second
o 2 episodes: 70% risk of a third
o 3+ episodes: 90% risk of more
- Variable course: full versus partial remission between episodes.
Associated features
- Elevated risk of suicide Approx. 15% of people with severe depression commit suicide
- Comorbidity
o Anxiety disorders (50%) eg, panic, OCD
o Eating disorders
o Substance abuse
o Borderline personality disorder. - A lot of behavioral and emotional
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.