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Lecture 4

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Psychology 2410A/B
Adam Cohen

50 multiple choice questions - equally split between text and lecture ▯ Recall questions (make connection between text and lecture) ▯ Inference questions (something in lecture/reading and infer something new) Cohort Effects • Ex. test 30 and 50-year olds on computer learning and how it declines in age • Problem with this is that they come from different generations where the 50-year olds grew up with little technology while the 30-year old had more • Limitation of cross-sectional design Cross-generational effect • Limitation of longitudinal design • Not always able to generalize to another group because of these effects • Not a cohort because you are only looking at one group • Sequential method: do both cross-sectional and longitudinal design which allows you to measure the cohort Methods Matrix Cross- Longitudinal Sequential sectional Interview Techhniquess Observation al Tasks Add third dimension - experimental, correlational, descriptive Quote by William James Not quite related to Piaget’s theory because he allows for baby’s to have some • conceptual knowledge • Learning theorists would be closest to this quote because they believe the baby has no knowledge Preferential Looking Technique (PLT) A psychophysical method • • Use when you want to see if a baby can discriminate between two objects • Present on a screen two images and measure how long they look at each image • If they have a preference, then they are able to distinguish between the stimuli Spatial Sensitivity (visual acuity) Measure visual acuity for infants using preferential looking technique • • Infants prefer something to nothing, and complexity over simplicity • As you change the spatial frequency (increase), the harder it is to make a discrimination • Measure infants visual acuity by increasing spatial frequency • Visual acuity is not very good, but increases substantially during the first year • You can also change the contrast in the bars on PLT • Also want to test in infants can discriminate between contrast using contrast sensitivity function • A limitation of PLT is when there is no difference between looking times, it could be because • they can’t discriminate between two stimuli OR • they discriminate, but have no preference Habituation Technique 100 75 50 25 0 Trial 1 n-2 Untitled 4 1. Set fixed number
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