Psychology 2410A/B Lecture Notes - Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning, Tabula Rasa
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Dev. Psyc. Class 2: (late 20 mins to class)
1/14/2013 6:48:00 AM
Outline Last Time
Theories on Origins of Knowledge
Nature/Nurture (common abilities CA, and individual differences ID)
Mechanisms of Change
Genes and environment as a product, builds mechanisms which causes CA
(behavior). The current environment is providing input to these mechanisms
in our head… these mechanisms also have access to other info in our head.
These mechanisms depend on our knowledge.
From these evolved learning mechanisms cause these CA (common abilities)
that are species typical.
They also link to NCA (non common abilities --- aka species impossible)
CA example for humans: seeing “visible: light, speaking
NCA example for humans: seeing “ultraviolet” light (CA for bees though),
hearing really high frequencies (CA for dogs though)
Where would “reading” come into this?
We use un-CA to describe abilities that may are uncommon, but not species
Un-CA example for humans: playing chess, reading, handstand.
From G x E (Genes x Env) to mechanisms, How does G x E build
1) experience- experience processes
o STE (normative development) – all people typically
o Critical/sensitive periods
o Absence derails development
2) experience – dependent processes
o ISE (ideographic development)
Some people have experience
o Act throughout lifespan
o Absence isn’t detrimental
Individual Differences (ID)
Individual rectangle … area based on l x w, like how CA depends on G x E.
Group of rectangles … If they vary, how much of the variance is due to
differences in length, and how much in width?
Q: Does Area vary b/c of differences in L, W, or both?
Can reword question applying it to dev. psyc: Is height variance
based on genes, environment, or both?
Q: What are sources of ID’s? (relates to Behavioral Genetics)
Heritability: proportion of variance in trait due to differences in genes
Heritability … (h-squared) = V of g/ V of trait = Vg/ Vg+ Ve + Vge
“ge” means combo of genes and env. For midterm and exam purposes, we
DO NOT NEED TO WORRY ABOUT Vge
Correcting 5 misconceptions about h-squared (heritability)
1) heritability does not mean inherited… but rather refers to the amt of
variance in trait due to variance in genes. Inherited implies whether it has a
genetic basis… parent affects offspring.