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Lecture

Lecture5.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2410A/B
Professor
Adam Cohen

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Description
LECTURE 5 We assume things continue to exist even when we can’t see them • This is the basis of an object concept • A concept is information that is encoded in the brain that is about something • For object concept it is about the object Object Concept • Object permanence: understanding that objects continue to exist even when you can’t perceive them or act on them • Piaget • < 8 months - infants fail the manual search tasks • Object concept is absent • “out of sight, out of mind” • may not have the muscle to search • remember and attention demands may affect failure to search • 8-12 months - A not B error • Object concept is weak or fragile • We want to create a task that reduces performance demands Challenge to Piaget • Underestimates child’s knowledge • Competence-Performance distinction • Competence - what you know • Performance - ability to express what you know • We want to reduce performance demands so we can get a better estimate of infants competence Violation of Expectation Paradigm (VOE) • Compare responses to expected and unexpected events • Ex. Draw Bridge Study (Bailargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985) • Q: Do infants < 8 months understand object permanence and therefore have object concept • Method: Habituation/VOE in 5 month olds • At test: • Possible/expected event - different motion than habituation • Impossible/unexpected event - same motion than habituation • Result: dishabituating to unexpected event • Conclusion: evidence for object permanence in 5 months • Bailargeon (1987) tested 3.5-4.5 months and got the same results • Ex 2. Ramp Study • Q: Do young infants not only understand object permanence but also represent properties features of hidden objects like location? • Method: Habituation/VOE in 6 and 8 month olds • At Test: • Possible/expected event - box off tracks • Impossible/unexpected event - box on tracks LECTURE 5 • Conclusion: infants represent object (object permanence) and location of object when hidden (feature binding) Piaget’s Theory of Development Sensorimotor Period: Object Knowledge Substage Age (months) Description Stage 1 0-1 Passive Stage 2 1-4 No Search Stage 3 4-8 Search for partially hidden object No search for hidden object Stage 4 8-12 Searches for hidden object Stage 5 12-18 Actively explore object Stage 6 18-24 Children form enduring mental representations • Why Do Infants Make A-not-B Error? • Observations (ways of lowering error) • Visual attention task (instead of manual search task) • evidence that they have encoded the new location • Make A and B distinct they are less likely to make A-not-B error A B • Decreasing delay before search • Decrease the number of placements of A Explanation 1. Memory account • support: effect of delay • problem: error persists even with transparent or no cover • also major challenge to Piaget’s Theory because they can see the object (not out of sight out of mind) 2. Inhibition ac
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