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Lecture 7

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Western University
Psychology 2410A/B
Adam Cohen

Lecture 7: Monday, March-04-13 Outline Last Time - Things vs. things about things (representations) - Non-symbolic number: ANSproperties, abilities supported OTS/ORS properties, abilities supported ANS—represents large numerosities OTS—represents small sets of objects Today - Symbolic number: counting, Piaget vs. Core knowledge Analog models and accumulator models are used - Accumulator one cup per item counted, pour it in to the “accumulator”, this goes into memory…this gives you a type of map for counting objects. But, your memory is noisy. Object Tracking System and Object Representation System: Cracker Choice Experiments - 10 & 12 month olds - Baby sees the experimenter put crackers into buckets…they but 2 in one bucket and 3 in the other…if the baby is keeping track, he/she should go to the bucket with more crackers - If you put 1 into bucket #1 & 2 into bucket #2, the 10 and 12 year olds prefer the bucket with more crackers. However, when it goes to 3 vs. 4, the choice is due to chance (for 10 mo olds, not 12 mo olds). Manual Search Experiments - Babies see the experimenter place 2 balls on top of a box, then they are put into the box - The child is allowed to remove a ball from the box, while doing this the experimenter takes out a ball without the baby knowing. - You track the amount of time the baby searches for the ball (if they were tracking it should be a decent length of time) - When they see that the experimenter has removed the 2 ball, the searching time is much smaller Wynn (1992) Infant Arithmetic - Ambiguous, what system is actually at work? (ANS or OTS/ORS) Counting - Gelman & Gallisted, 1978 - Five principles: 1) One-to-one correspondence  the number stated needs to correspond to the number of objects 2) Stable order principle numbers need to be in an order (can be 1,3,5 AS LONG AS you always maintain that order every time you count the numbers are arbitrary) 3) Order of irrelevance 4) Cardinality  the last number in your count list describes how many objects are in the set 5) Abstraction principle doesn’t matter which object represents the number? - 3 year olds show knowledge of these principles - Which system is more likely to be involved with tracking up to 6 numbers on a screen Language - Blank Slate Theories  Association: hear something and see the object (e.g., “banana”) and learn to always pair these together  Behaviourism (Skinner): reinforcement (parents don’t actually always use reinforcement won’t correct their child if they say “I breaked my toy” instead of “I broke my toy”  Imitation/Memorization (more recent) - Problems for Blank Slate Theories 1. Word-referent: incorrect pairings and non-pairings a. Someone says “banana” and there is nothing there should lead to the “unlearning” of banana Saying “banana” when there is an object that is actually NOT a banana (should relearn what a “banana” is)  young kids p
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