Psychology 2410A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Verbal Behavior, Broccoli, Habituation

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
Western University
Psychology 2410A/B
Outline - Last Time
Black Slate Theory
Problems for Black Slate Theory
LAD Theory
Pattern of Development
Necessity of Language Input
Speech Perception
Phonemic Categorization
Perceptual Narrowing
Categorical Speech Perception
Sentences are composed of words
You can decompose individual words into word parts called morphemes
The word parts are made of parts called phonemes
Voice onset time (VOT) is just the difference in time between when the air passes
through your lips and when your vocal chords start to vibrate
Habituation --> sucking response (Eimas et al. 1971)
Habituate to “pa”
Infants reinterested in “ba” sound
Therefore they can distinguish between these two sounds
Selective Discrimination of Speech Sounds (Werker, 1981)
Conditioned head turn procedure (learn to turn their head to a particular sound)
Procedure --> 6-12 mo
Perceptual narrowing to non-native speech sounds
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
% categorized as “pa” or “ba”
Lecture 8
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Charlie Task
The study proceeds in two phases
In the first phase you ask the child which candy is Charlie looking at
They will all answer correctly
You then ask them what candy Charlie wants
They all infer he wants the one he is looking at
When you ask autism children the second question, the answer is at chance
You effortlessly compute that what they look at is what they want
The claim is that you can make this decision so easily is because of the theory of mind
Theory of Mind - mindreading, mentalizing, or folk, commonsense, naive, intuitive
You interpret or explain a behaviour in terms of mental states (belief, desire, intention)
You can also make predictions going in the other direction
!!! interpret/explain
! Behaviour! ----------------> Mental States
(actions, gaze, verbal behaviour etc) <---------------- (belief, desire, intention, etc.)
!!!! predictions
Desire Concept
Goldfish and broccoli study (Repacholi and Gopnik, 1997)
Q: Do infant’s “implicitly” understand others desires?
Method: 2(age:14vs18mo) x 2(matched value: matched, mismatched)
If the child understands the sound reflects what they want, then they should give the
experimenter that object
In the matched condition the child may be acting based on what they want and
ignoring what the experimenter wants
The mismatched condition pins what the child wants against what the experimenter
They must inhibit what they want and give the experiment something different
Intention Concept
Dumbbell Study (Meltzoff, 1995)
Q: Do infants blindly imitate or do they infer intention?
Method: 18 mo
See a failed act in both conditions
14 mo 18 mo
Lecture 8
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Document Summary

Outline - last time: language, speech perception, black slate theory, problems for black slate theory, lad theory, domain-speci city, rule-use, pattern of development, necessity of language input, phonemic categorization, perceptual narrowing. Ba a b r o a p s a d e z i r o g e a c t. 20 40 60 80: method, habituation --> sucking response (eimas et al. 1971: habituate to pa , infants reinterested in ba sound, therefore they can distinguish between these two sounds. Selective discrimination of speech sounds (werker, 1981: conditioned head turn procedure (learn to turn their head to a particular sound, procedure --> 6-12 mo, perceptual narrowing to non-native speech sounds. Intention concept: dumbbell study (meltzoff, 1995, q: do infants blindly imitate or do they infer intention, method: 18 mo, see a failed act in both conditions. Human machine control: conclusion: infants inferring intention, not merely imitating. Lecture 8 s e i t r a m.

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