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Lecture 8

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Psychology 2410A/B
Adam Cohen

Lecture 8 Outline - Last Time • Language •Black Slate Theory •Problems for Black Slate Theory •LAD Theory • Domain-Specificity • Rule-Use • Pattern of Development • Necessity of Language Input •Speech Perception • Phonemic Categorization • Perceptual Narrowing Categorical Speech Perception • Sentences are composed of words • You can decompose individual words into word parts called morphemes • The word parts are made of parts called phonemes • Voice onset time (VOT) is just the difference in time between when the air passes through your lips and when your ”ocal chords start to vibrate a “Pa” r “Ba” o a “ a d z o g a c -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 VOT • Method •Habituation --> sucking response (Eimas et al. 1971) •Habituate to “pa” •Infants reinterested in “ba” sound •Therefore they can distinguish between these two sounds Selective Discrimination of Speech Sounds (Werker, 1981) • Conditioned head turn procedure (learn to turn their head to a particular sound) • Procedure --> 6-12 mo • Perceptual narrowing to non-native speech sounds Lecture 8 Charlie Task • The study proceeds in two phases • In the first phase you ask the child which candy is Charlie looking at • They will all answer correctly • You then ask them what candy Charlie wants • They all infer he wants the one he is looking at • When you ask autism children the second question, the answer is at chance • You effortlessly compute that what they look at is what they want • The claim is that you can make this decision so easily is because of the theory of mind system Theory of Mind - mindreading, mentalizing, or folk, commonsense, naive, intuitive psychology • You interpret or explain a behaviour in terms of mental states (belief, desire, intention) • You can also make predictions going in the other direction ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ interpret/explain ▯ Behaviour▯ ----------------> Mental States (actions, gaze, verbal behaviour etc)
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