Seeing "visible" light, speaking, walking
Playing chess, reading? Handstand
Non common ability
Seeing UV light (bees)
Hearing high frequencies (dogs)
From Genes X Environment to mechanisms, how does G X E build mechanisms?
1) Experience expectant processes (STE - species typical environment- as long as
that is present, no genetic abnormalities, normal development, this is the aspects of
the environment that all people will experience)
Often has a time limit where they must be exposed to the environment to develop
normally (critical or sensitive periods) Example: if a child doesn’t acquire language
within a critical period language acquisition is very different
Absence of STE derails development
2) Experience dependent processes - ISE - ideographic development - the
development that is driven by the individual environment, not everyone encounters
this. People will have different experiences. Acts throughout your lifespan. Absence
is not detrimental (whether you play sports or a playing an instrument will improve
some things but if you don’t do it it wont have a huge effect)
Individual Differences (ID)
Individual rectangle, A = l x w
Group of rectangles, each rectangle has its own area, given that the areas vary, how
much of that variances is due to variances in the length vs. variance in the width?
Key question here: does the area vary because of differences in the length, width, or
both? Does height vary because of differences in genes, differences in the
environment (ie diet), or both? What are the sources of individual differences?
Behavioral genetics is key here.
The proportion of variance in a trait due to differences in genes.
h^2 = Vg/ Vt = Vg / Vg + Ve + Vge (Vg = variance in genes, Ve= variance in
environment, Vge = complex interaction between genes and environment- don’t
worry about this one)
Correcting 5 misconceptions about heritability: 1) Heritability is not the same thing as something being inherited. Heritability is the
amount of variance in the trait that’s due to variance in the genes. Inherited refers to
whether a trait has a genetic basis (whether the gene has been passed from parent
Ex. 3 genetically identical cows, milk these cows and measure their milk production,
cow 1 = 10L, cow 2= 15L, cow 3= 7L. No heritability because they're genetically
identical, no variance in the genes! (h^2 equation, numerator would be 0) The
differences in milk production must be due to environment. Even though there's a
genetic basis for milk production (it is inherited)
2) h^2 does not apply to individuals, population of individuals. Heritability only
applies to a group of individuals, not an individual, not the difference between two
3) h^2 does not