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Psych 2410, lec 2, jan 14.docx

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Psychology 2410A/B

Psych 2410 Lecture 2 Jan 14 Common ability Seeing "visible" light, speaking, walking Uncommon ability Playing chess, reading? Handstand Non common ability Seeing UV light (bees) Hearing high frequencies (dogs) Flying (bird) From Genes X Environment to mechanisms, how does G X E build mechanisms? (ELC) 1) Experience expectant processes (STE - species typical environment- as long as that is present, no genetic abnormalities, normal development, this is the aspects of the environment that all people will experience) Often has a time limit where they must be exposed to the environment to develop normally (critical or sensitive periods) Example: if a child doesn’t acquire language within a critical period language acquisition is very different Absence of STE derails development 2) Experience dependent processes - ISE - ideographic development - the development that is driven by the individual environment, not everyone encounters this. People will have different experiences. Acts throughout your lifespan. Absence is not detrimental (whether you play sports or a playing an instrument will improve some things but if you don’t do it it wont have a huge effect) Individual Differences (ID) Individual rectangle, A = l x w Group of rectangles, each rectangle has its own area, given that the areas vary, how much of that variances is due to variances in the length vs. variance in the width? Key question here: does the area vary because of differences in the length, width, or both? Does height vary because of differences in genes, differences in the environment (ie diet), or both? What are the sources of individual differences? Behavioral genetics is key here. Heritability The proportion of variance in a trait due to differences in genes. h^2 = Vg/ Vt = Vg / Vg + Ve + Vge (Vg = variance in genes, Ve= variance in environment, Vge = complex interaction between genes and environment- don’t worry about this one) Correcting 5 misconceptions about heritability: 1) Heritability is not the same thing as something being inherited. Heritability is the amount of variance in the trait that’s due to variance in the genes. Inherited refers to whether a trait has a genetic basis (whether the gene has been passed from parent to offspring) Ex. 3 genetically identical cows, milk these cows and measure their milk production, cow 1 = 10L, cow 2= 15L, cow 3= 7L. No heritability because they're genetically identical, no variance in the genes! (h^2 equation, numerator would be 0) The differences in milk production must be due to environment. Even though there's a genetic basis for milk production (it is inherited) 2) h^2 does not apply to individuals, population of individuals. Heritability only applies to a group of individuals, not an individual, not the difference between two groups. 3) h^2 does not
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