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Psychology 2410A/B

Psych 2134 Jan 21 Lecture 3 Revisiting social learning theory (aka social cognitive theory) - Most closely associated with Albert Bandura - 2 main processes are observation & imitation - General purpose, work across all domains (domain general processes) - Different than conditions in that it invokes a cognitive component - In their theories they talk about tension, coding, storing & retrieval - Bobo doll study - No reinforcement of child's behavior - Just observation Graph: Y axis= average aggressive behavior What varied was whether the kids saw the model get rewarded or not X axis= 3 points: aggressive + rewarded, aggressive + punished, aggressive + no consequences Aggressive + rewarded = lots of average aggression, aggressive + punished = lower average aggression, aggressive + no consequence = about equal as aggressive + rewarded Why is this not operant conditioning? The reward is directed at the model, not the kid. "Vicariance reinforcement" = ?? 3 new x axis point= reward or no reward for imitating model behavior - Same amount as before for aggressive + rewarded model, jumps to the same amount as the other two for aggressive + punished model, same amount as before for aggressive + no consequences for the model Why is this still not operant conditioning? Because the reward is given before the behavior (in operant conditioning the reward is given after the behavior- law of effect) - Bandura said that by watching the model these kids were learning stuff, when you reinforce them you can see what they've learned Summarize learning theories + themes: Nature vs. nurture - a few simple domain general processes - Sources of individual differences are differences in the environment, when you see variance in behavior its variance in the environment not variance in the genes Continuity/ Discontinuity- same learning principles throughout life (continuity is circled) Active/ Passive: passive is circled; passive but social cognitive learning theory suggests that both are correct Limitations: 1. Not all conditioning is equal, why are there differences? E.g., fear of a snake vs. a flower? 2. Often these associations generalize over various stimuli, little Albert study, "problem of generalization/ similarity", the need for concepts. E.g., little Albert scared of white rat and then bunny. 3. Difficult to explain behavior without appealing to the mind Piaget's Theory Dominant metaphor: "the child as a scientist" (behaviorism says child is blank slate- which theory? Go over this.) Central assumptions of theory: 1. The child constructs new knowledge- children formulate little hypothesis, run little experiments, and formulate conclusions based on these results. Development consists of child running these experiments and building knowledge on their own. 2. Learn on their own- not dependent on adults/ peers 3. Children don’t need to be reinforced; they are intrinsically motivated. - They don’t need a reward Properties of Piaget's Theory Graph: development on Y axis, age on X axis Staircase type graph, which is considered qualitative change 4 properties: 1. Qualitative change: (this is relative for continuity/ discontinuity - Piaget supports discontinuity - development in stages) 2. When you're in any one of these stages the thinking structures the child has affects all areas of their knowledge, they apply this across all their range of knowledge (broad applicability within a stage). For Piaget development depends on domain general properties. 3. Transitions between these stages are very brief. 4. Invariance sequence: you go through the stages in order, no skipping Stages in Piaget's Theory: Stage Age Evidence Theory Sensorimotor 0-2 No object permanence 1. Little knowledge at birth years until about 8 months, a. Some perceptual abilities if an object is no b. Reflexes longer in view they c. Basic learning mechanisms cant understand that 2. Child begins to organize the object still exists sensory and motor coordination (when kids cant see stuff they think it doesn’t exist) Pre- 2-7 - Scale errors/ success 1. Development in understanding operational years - Conservation errors symbols (big snoopy/ little - Perspective taking snoopy video) errors 2. Failure to grasp logical relations/ centration 3. Egocentrism Concrete 7-12 Concrete success 1. Reason logically about Operational years
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