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Psych 2410 lec 4, Jan 28.docx

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Psychology 2410A/B

Psych 2410 Lecture 4 - Jan 28 Outline - Last Time Theories - Classical conditioning - Operant conditioning - Social cognitive theory Piaget's theory Developmental systems theory Core knowledge/ Evo-Devo Psych Theory Methods - Validity - Reliability - Cross sectional designs - Longitudinal designs Exam- in the bobo doll, why is it not operant conditioning? - Be able to make connections between theories and other things (synthesis) - Inference questions - slightly new set of data, what would be your prediction? Or "what would Piaget predict?" etc. Cohort Effects Run a study with a bunch of 30 year olds and 50 year olds, 30 year old show a high level of computer learning and the 50 year olds show a low level of computer learning - you conclude that the 30 year olds are better at computer learning. This inference is not accurate because of cohort effects- the 30 year olds are better because computers have been introduced when they were young and they got used to them at a young age (cohort effect: The concept that people of a given chronological age in a given culture may behave similarly throughout their lives and different from people of other ages because of shared life experiences.) - get cohort effects when you do cross sectional designs Cross- Generational Effect - Limitation of longitudinal design Look at those 30 year olds 20 years later when they are 50, and they are even better at computer learning, 50 year olds (now 70 year olds) from previous study haven’t changed, another cohort effect? Inverse of cohort effect, effect that only applies to one cohort (one of the groups), not all of them - Get cross-generational when you do longitudinal designs - So cross-generational effect is when one group changes over time (30 yr olds) and the other doesn’t (50 yr olds)? Methods Matrix (cube) - Summary of methods you can manipulate Techniques (length) - Interview (will read about techniques in readings) - Observational studies - Tasks What design will they use? (width) - Cross sectional approach - Longitudinal method - Sequential (combo of the 2) General research design dimension (3rd dimension to make up a cube, ie. height) - Descriptive - Correlational (2 things, are they associated?) - Experimental (manipulate one and measure the other) "The baby, assailed by eyes, ears, nose, skin, and entrails all at once, feels it all as one great blooming, buzzing, confusion…" - William James What theory corresponds to this quote - Piaget theory? - No, Piaget found children active in their environment, Piaget allowed basic perceptual abilities - Corresponds with behaviorism - see the baby as a blank slate with a couple of learning mechanisms Preferential Looking technique (PLT) - On a screen present 2 images to an infant, measure how long they look at each image (dependent variable) - If the baby shows a preference for one of the images, they can discriminate between the stimuli Spatial Sensitivity (visual acuity) - Adult: Snellen chart (the standard letters getting smaller at the optometrist office) - 20/30 vision means that what you see at 20 ft away, the typical person could see at 30 ft away - Infant, prefer something to nothing, and prefer complex things to simple things. Their visual acuity sucks but still. And we use preferential looking technique for this. (ie. stripes and full black block, varying the stripes (spatial frequency- how may bars you can pack into a square), as the spatial frequency goes up (more bars), the harder it is the discriminate. Finer and finer gradients to measure the acuity- their acuity sucks (20/200 - 20/600) - Changing the contrast between the bars (bars of the same width with varying contrast, bars doing the arc thingy from class) - Visual acuity improves, doesn’t hit adult level till
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