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Lecture 8

Psych 2410 Lecture 8 (monday march 11).docx

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Psychology 2410A/B

Lecture 8: Monday, March-11-13 Outline Last Time Language Blank slate theories (3) & problems for it (4), LAD theory: domain specificity, rule-use, pattern of development, necessity of language input Today Speech Perception: phonetic categorization, perceptual narrowing - If you don’t have the right environment, language acquisition will not proceed “normally” Categorical Speech Perception - “The boy played baseball” : take the word ‘play’, can be broken down (play, ed) o The word is made of phonemes, e.g., the “pa” sound at the beginning of play - The phonemes “pa” and “ba” are identical in most respects, other than the voice onset time. - Draw a graph, with voice onset time on the x-axis (in ms) and on the y-axis, % categorized as “ba” or “pa”, there is a flip between hearing ba or pa at about 30 ms - Experiment (Eimes et al., 1971): Method: habituations sucking response time in 1 month olds. (Suck more rapidly when they’re excited). They repeatedly presented the baby with a “ba” sound (Voice onset time = 20 ms), they habituate to the sound. In the test phase, they may present the sound with 40 ms VOT (“pa”), or continue to present “ba”. There is another condition, where in the habituation portion they hear a “pa” (VOT = 60 ms), and in the test phase the VOT = 80 ms. The change in VOT is the same in the two conditions, but in the first condition, they are crossing a category ‘line’. Babies in the first condition dishabituate when the VOT is changed, but the babies in the second condition continue to habituate when the VOT changes o Babies seem prepared to make discriminations across all phonemes (not language specific) Selective Discrimination Speech Sounds (Werker, 1981) - Babies learn to turn their head every time there is a change in sound - This was done using 6-12 month olds - Graph: y-axis is discrimination between non-native speech sounds; x-axis was age, with the groups being 6-8, 8-10, 10-12. The first group showed the most discrimination, while the last group discriminates the least Charlie Task - Typically developing 4 year olds & autism diagnosed children - Show “Charlie”, and there are 4 candies around him, and they ask what candy Charlie is looking at. Both groups answered correctly. There is a follow up question, “which candy does he want?” The normal developing kids infer that the one he is looking at is what he wants. The children with autism guess by chance. Theory of Mind - Mind reading, mentalizing, ____ psychology (folk, common sense, naïve, intuitive) - Behaviour (actions, verbal) mental states (belief, desire, intention) * can make predictions in either direction. - Belief: Andy believes there is beer in the fridge; Desire: Andy wants beer  Action: Andy will go to the fridge Desire do infants “implicitly” understand others desires? - Method: 2 (age: 14 month olds & 18 month olds) x 2 (matched or unmatched) o Present goldfish and broccoli, asking what do you like? In the match condition, they say “mmmm” to goldfish and “eww” to broccoli. In the mismatch, the experimenter say “eww” to goldfish and “mmmm” to broccoli. Then the ask the child to give them some (of what they like). - Results: graph—y-axis: %age of P’s that give crackers, x-axis: ages o With the 14 month olds, they are giving crackers in both conditions (giving what they want). At 18 mo, they are giving the experimenter
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