Lecture 9: Monday, March-25-13
Outline last time:
- Social logic: Behaviourmental states; desire, intention, pretense, belief
- 3 classic tasks: conceptual change theory, early competence theory, performance demands
(“look first” task)
Final exam will be cumulative! The exam is April 27, 2013 @ 7pm. All new material + readings
(week 10, 11, 12, 13) will be more heavily weighted. All old lecture material are relevant but not
Conceptual change view: 4 year olds are more competent than three year olds (there is a change in
Early competence: there is a change in ability to demonstrate what they know (handle task
demands)…there is a gradual shift (even though competence is already quite rich at 3 yrs)
Look First Task
- Sally-Anne task, as described previously. Ask the child, where will Sally look first for her marble?
(Changing the question, make it more clear what you’re asking) this should only help if there
really is a performance demand (not if the problem is lack of competence). This means, the
conceptual change view would continue to predict the same thing (3 yr olds fail the task and 4
year olds pass). The early competence view predicts that performance in the false belief
condition will jump up! (false belief: Sally doesn’t see Anne move the marble; true belief: Sally
sees Anne move the marble)
Infant FB Task
- There is a familiarization phase. If you see someone, and see their eyes move to a location, you
will always look there. In this phase, they have a visor covering the persons eyes to avoid this.
The child sees watermelon placed into one of two boxes. They then see the experimenter reach
towards that box.
- Test phase: can either see or not see what is going on, and watermelon goes to one of the two
- Belief induction phase: see the person in the background go to one of the locations. There is an
expected search (infant not surprised) and unexpected search (infant should be surprised).
Which condition is expected vs. unexpected changes depending on if the person can see or not
see where the watermelon goes.
- This was done with 15 month olds. Graph: you plot looking time along the y-axis. On the x-axis,
there is True Belief (expected vs. unexpected) and Flase Belief (expected vs. unexpected). With
both TB and FB, looking times are low for expected events and high for unexpected events.
Newborn babies are altricial …they need attachment with their parents/caregivers. Some species (hares,
certain birds) are precocial, and have no reliance on their mothers. Attachment a bond with another person.
Psychoanalytical theory Feeding is the basis for development of attachment (often the
Watson’s behaviorism food is an US, and generates approach behaviours as UR. You pair the
mother (neutral) with the food, and the mother becomes conditioned (CS) to produce approach
Skinner’s behaviorism approach behaviour is reinforced by food.
1. Orphanage children. All their needs (psychical) were met. There wasn’t “normal” social
interactions, however. Their problems persisted throughout their entire lives (hard time getting
jobs, starting familes, etc.)
2. Attachment in monkeys (Harry Harlow)
a. Surrogate mother experiments (separated from mother at birth, got to interact between a
wire mesh “mother” that feeds it, or a terry cloth “mother”)
- Feeding version DV: how much time does monkey spend with each mother (wire me