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Lecture 4

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Western University
Psychology 2410A/B
Sandra Hessels

Study the brain from many perspectives gross anatomy all the way down to sub cellular level molecular connections etcCentral Nervous Sysytem CNS brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous system PNS everything else outside of the skull and the spine Serves to bring information into the CNS afferencearrival and send information out of CNS effernece exit Nerves go throughout the entire body with different concentrations at different partsSubsystems y Somatic Nervous Systemo afferent nerves sensory and efferent nerves motortell your muscles to contract o working voluntary muscles and conscious sensations y Autonomic Nervous System running the automatic bodily functions o Sympathetic involved in activation vs parasympathetic oppositeTwo stage neural paths neuron exiting the CNS synapses on a secondstage neuron before the target organ o All nerves are efferent o Sympathetic dialate pupil inhibit stomach activity heart rate goes up release bladder ejaculation thorac and lumbar of CNSfight or flight o Parasympathetic contract pupil stimulate stomach activity heart rate goes down close bladder erection Cranial and Sacral part of CNSRest and restoreSecond stage neurons are near target organ o Therefore these two subsystems interplay to control onoff many functions y Cranial nerves 12 each specialized for sensory processing We perceive ourselves from the top because our head is the main source for sensory input the most important sensory structures are on the head eyes ears mouth noseo Cranial nerve 1 olfactory nerve o Nerve 2 optic nerve o Nerve 7 facial sensory and motorBack to the CNS It is encased by bone the skull and covered by three meninges y Dura mater tough outer membrane y Arachnoid membrane weblike y Pia Mater adheres to CNS surface
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