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Psychology 2550A/B

Allport - Habits o Specific, inflexible response to stimuli o More limited than traits because they’re a response to a specific stimulus o Difficult to change - Attitudes o Similar to traits o Specific object reference  Unlike traits which are specific o Positive or negative evaluations  Lead you to like or hate something - Functional autonomy of motives o Motives are independent of the childhood eperiences in which they first appeared - Preservative functional autonomy o Relates to low-level and routine behaviours o Not important enough to impact personality -? - Propriate functional autonomy o Relates to values, self-image and lifestyle o Term derived from “proprium” – the self o Direct relationship between abilities and interests – we like to do what we do well o The original motivation doesn’t necessarily matter in the long run – if a child plays piano, it’s because their parents put them in piano lessons. After a time, the child will grow to like playing the piano - Personality development - 1-4 o Bodily self: become aware of their own existence  Infant becomes aware of bodily me – my body is not environment o Self-identity: realise identity remains intact in the face of change  I am not other people. My name is me o Self-esteem: take pride on accomplishments  Can do things on their own. Motivated to build and explore - 4-6 o Extension of self: recognise the objects & people that are part of their world  My parents, my house, my toys – these things are part of me o Self-image: actual and idealised images of themselves and learn about expectations  How they are and how they would like to be (viewed and things) - 6-12 o Self as a rational coper: apply reason and logic to solving problems - Adolescence o Propriate striving: formulation of long-range goals  Adolescents start creating goals and plans for their future  Start to be driven by internal forces o Self as knower: integrate the proprium into a unified whole  All aspects of self now function together - Personality of a health/mature adult o Extension of self o Relates warmly to others o Self-acceptance  Secure. Avoid overreacting to things out of their control o Realistic perception of reality o Insight into self o Unifying philosophy of life  Responsible for directing your personality and directing you towards your life goals - Child and adults are different. Normal and abnormal adults are different. These 6^ are normal. - Assessment in Allport’s theory o Constitutional and physiological diagnosis o Cultural setting, roles o Personal documents o Self-appraisal o Conduct analysis o Observer ratings o Tests and scales o Projective techniques o Depth analysis o Expressive behaviour o Synoptic procedures o Study of values –  Social, practical, political, religious  Are personality traits  Represent interest and motivation  Every has a bit of each, but a few become dominant - Research o Nomothetic approach – universal laws  When we are looking for universal laws that most people abide by  Psychology tends to favour this  We look at behaviour and try to generalise it  Relies on statistics o Idiographic approach – study of the individual  Allport like this  Looks at how people differ from the norm o Expressive behaviour  Spontaneous & seemingly purposeless behaviour  Informal, unplanned  Gestures, posture, vocal inflections o Coping behaviour  Consciously planned behaviour  Determined by needs of the situation - Critcisms o Nomothetic approach is more accepted – but he used idiographic o Operational definitions difficult o Concept of functional autonomy o Emphasis on uniqueness o He liked to study psychologically healthy people because he felt you couldn’t learn anything about healthy people studying abnormal people o Didn’t specify how childhood motives are changed into autonomous ones o Its against his ideas to generalise – everyone is unique o Many people don’t want to accept that there is no continuity between childhood and adulthood - Human nature: o Free will and determinism o Nature and nurture o Unique o Growth o Optimism Cattell o See how a person would respond to a certain stimuli o Behaviour was never changed from “undesirable” to “desirable” o Interested in normal people o Interested in the study of personality – understanding it, not changing o Before we change personality, we have to understand it o Relied on behavioural observation and a vast amount of data o Underlying factors are traits o Only when we understand traits can we figure out how a person will behave in a certain situation - Biography o England o Nearby house converted to hospital during the world war – decided his future o University at 16  Worked with Charles Spearman during graduate  Wanted a complete understanding of the human mind o Wanted to use factor analysis to study personality o Moved to NY to work with E.L. Thorndike at Columbia university o University of Illinois at 40 o 500 articles, 43 books -
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