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Chapter 12 Phenomenological.docx

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Psychology 2550A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 12 Phenomenological-Humanistic Conceptions 10/30/2013 1:47:00 PM Phenomenological-Humanistic Perspectives  Humanistic Psychology: A “holistic psychology”, studying the individual as a whole person, focusing on subjective experience and the self (THE WHOLE PERSON)  Phenomenology refers to the study of consciousness and the experience of things and events as the individual perceives them o Focuses on the “here and now”  Existentialists argue each person is o A choosing agent (choose who you want to be, where you want to be, uplifting model) o A free agent – by the time you’re and adult you can do whatever you want o A responsible agent – what you do and where you are, it’s your DOING (your responsibility, you have to correct, etc)  The inevitability of death causes existential anxiety Allport’s Functional Autonomy  behavior is motivated originally by instincts, but later may sustain itself without providing any biological gratifications  maturity is measured by functional autonomy – the ability to separate behaviors from any earlier motive of infancy  the contemporaneity of motives – motives should be understood by their role in the present, not the past Lewin’s “Life Space”  In field theory, and object is perceived based on the total context of its surroundings  Lewin defined life space as the totality of facts that determine the behavior (B) of the person (P) in the psychological environment (E) o B= f (P,E)  The principle of contemporaneity: only present facts can cause present behavior (only what’s here and now)  Permeable boundaries (picture in textbook, not solid walls, permeable boundaries) – exist between the person and the psychological environment, and the life space and the physical world o Maturity = greater differentiation of the person and the psychological environment  Lewin rejected both the idea of unchanging traits and the concept of needs Self-Actualization  Healthy people “those who”: o Become aware of and accept themselves, their feelings, and their limits o Experience the “here-and-now”, are not anxiously stuck on the past or the future o Realize their potentialities, have autonomy and are not trapped by expectations of others and society Maslow  Abraham Maslow proposed that much behavior is driven by higher needs to self-actualize one’s potential Carl Rogers’ Self Theory – unique experience: The Subjective World  Rogers emphasized the unique, subjective experience of the person  The way one sees and interprets the events in life determines how one responds and deals with them  To rogers, behaviors was goal-directed to satisfy the needs of the individual Self-Actualization  Rogers viewed the organism as an organized whole  Self-actualization is guided by the persons desire to enhance the self, & is the primary motive of the elf, vs sex & aggression The Self  Rogers proposed two systems: o The self or self-concept which includes perceptions about oneself, one’s relationships to others, & one’s perception of the world  It affects how one interacts with others o One’s actual (organismic) experiences  The experiences of the self become invested with values  When these two systems are in opposition, the results is maladjustment Consistency and Positive Regard  Perception is selective: We perceive experiences consistent with the self-concept  Need for positive regard: The desire for accep
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