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Psychology 2550A/B lect 4.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2550A/B
Professor
David Vollick
Semester
Fall

Description
03/13/2014 The intuitive assumption of consistency We expect people to behave similarly across situations Studies of cross­situational consistency in behavior examined what people  claimed they were like and what they actually did in different situations  Many found the consistency in actual behavior (e.g. conscientiousness) in  different situations (e.g. at home, at school) to be much less expecte The 1968 challenge Mischel argued that these findings reflected limitations not just in the methods,  but also in the core assumptions about consistency and coherence in personality  theory The paradox defined Bem and Allen noted the personality paradox: Extensive research indicates low  cross­situational consistency of behavior, but intuition leads us to assume  consistency. Which one is right? A long person versus situation debate followed The person vs. situation debate Fundamental attribution error, incorrectly viewing personality dispositions, and  not situation effects, as explanation of behavior Contributions to the debate: Several influential critiques of personality research published in the late 1960s Situationists, personality was a fictitious construct that situations are more  powerful determinants of behavior than personality dispositions  Personality psychologists who treated situations as error variance The extent the person was important, the situation was not and vice versa  Incorporating situations into traits How do we reconcile the fact that individuals do vary across situations, yet also  exhibit stable personalities? If…then… situation behavior signatures Individuals often exhibit consistent behaviors within distinct situations in stable  patterns, creating signatures of personality  In one study, children displayed stable if…then…relationships  Two types of consistency  Type 1: Average overall levels of behavior tendencies Best measu
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