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Unit 8: Trait Aspects of Personality

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Western University
Psychology 2550A/B
Ross Esson

Unit 8: Trait Aspects of Personality and noted that individual differences can arise through evolutionary processes Objectives Francis Galton was focuses primarily on Distinguish between Types and Traits measuring intelligence he helped develop Understand the idea of Gordon Alport, statistical techniques use frequently in trait Raymond B. Cattell, Hans J. Eysenck approach Understand the Big 5 Know the limitations of trait theory and advantages Types Introduction Typologies: Discrete and Discontinuous categories Trait approach use of a limited set of adjectives Types are discrete or adjective dimensions to describe and scale That is you are one or the other Male or female individuals A or B Trait theorists assert that humans are clusters ENFJ or ENTJ of temperaments, traits, skills and types Personality Types Hippocrates Temperaments & Bodily Introversion vs. Extroversion Humors Hippocrates believed personality traits were tied toxtroversion an orientation towards things the fluids in the body. Postulated there were 4 outside ones self (tend to be shy, prefer to be alone) Temperaments Introversion tendency to turn inwards and explore ones feelings and experiences (generally Saguine linked to blood conventional, sociable and outgoing) These persons are friendly, even tempered, outgoing Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Widely used instrument that attempts to Melancholic linked to black bile measure introversion and extroversion and Sad, reserved, expect the worst of everything sever other subclassifications as defined by Jungs Work Choleric linked to Yellow Bile 16 types based on Attitudes: Introversion (I) and extraversion (E) Easily irritated, quick to anger, tend to hold Function: Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (I), grudges Thinking (T) vs Feeling (F) and Judging (J) vs Perceiving (P) Phlegmatic linked to Phlegm Sensation-intuition Scale subclassification that Dull, sluggish, cowardly reflects whether a person is more prone to realism or imagination History of the Trait Approach Thinking-Feeling Scale - reflects whether a person Theophrastus created character is logical and objective or personal and subjective descriptions over 2000 years ago. He was Judgment-Perception Scale reflects whether a known for his sketch of the stingy Penuriouperson is oriented towards evaluating or perceiving Man Charles Darwin helped make individual things differences a topic for scientific study. HeType A Personalities keen attention to consistencies in behaviorTrait Aspects of Personality These individuals were more competitive, Functionally Autonomous - Term Allport used to aggressive and hostile and had more describe the idea that in adulthood many motives exaggerated sense of time urgency and tendencies become independent of their origins in childhood and that finding out where such tendencies originated is, therefore not important Traits: Individual Differences on Dimensions Proprium - The core of personality that defines who one is; Allport believed that the proprium has a Traits: Continuous Dimension biological counterpart Traits are arranges on a continuum Cardinal traits - highly generalized dispositions They are inferred from behavior that influence most aspects of behavior They are assume to quantifiable and scalable Many common place adjectives could be Central traits - less pervasive but still quite considered traits generalized dispositions that broadly influence peoples behaviors Gordon Allport Personal Dispositions Counted 18000 adjectives in the dictionary and wanted a way to summarize them into Different people can be described differently rather groups of common characteristics than in terms of a few dimensions: Personality: The dynamic organization within the Nuclear quality personal dispositions in terms of individual of those psychophysical systems that a persons unique goals motives or styles determine his characteristic behavior and thought Personal disposition used to
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