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Ch 11: Phenomenology and Humanism

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Psychology 2550A/B
Stephen Erdle

Chapter 11 Phenomenology and HumanismCarl Rogers rdy 3 force phenomenologicalemphasized moving towards the future rather than looking at the pastStructure y Phenomenal field the perception of realitywhats important isnt what is out in the world but your perception of what is out in the worldy There are as many real worlds as there are peopleeveryone has their own perspective y Basic motivation is basic human strivingeverything tries to growself actualize everyone tries to maximize their potential y Distinguishes between the actual self and ideal self o Actual what one is and doeso Ideal what youd ideally like to bey Ideally wed like our real selves to be in line with our ideal selfthe greater the difference the greater the maladjustmentDevelopment y As children we develop a need for positive regardwe need to be regarded well by others to have a sense of self esteem y We develop positive self regardimportant for our self esteemnot only need to be regarded positively by others but also need to be positively regarded by ourselvesy Conditions of worth control thisconditions that are placed upon the individual to get positive regardparents can put conditions of worth on their children so they can only get positive regard if they live up to certain conditions doing well in school etcy What parents need to do is give unconditional positive regard to children in terms of their upbringingshould not put conditions of worth on their behaviour and give them unconditional regard independent of their behaviour y Should give them as much positive regard as possible so they can develop a strong self esteemcauses their ideal and actual self to be inline with one anotherMaladjustment y Discrepancy between the actual self and ideal selfthe more discrepancy the lower your self esteem y Rogerian follower Higgins 1980 suggested there can be a discrepancy between the actual self and the ought self your own idealdiscrepancy causes depressiony And between the actual self and the should self other peoples ideals for youdiscrepancy causes anxietyBehaviour Change y Developed client centered therapy the person is a client rather than a patientfocus on the clients interpretations of them self rather than the therapists interpretationalso called nondirective theory less directive than psychoanalysis y To be a good therapist you had to have 3 different characteristics o Giving the client unconditional positive regard o Empathic understanding o Genuineness
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