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Ch 13: Behaviourism

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Psychology 2550A/B
Stephen Erdle

Chapter 13 Behaviourismy The learning paradigm how learning contributes to personality and behaviour change y Looks at external factors in the environment that influence our behaviourPavlov 1906Classical Conditioning y The learning of behaviour through associating stimulus with neutral objects y The basic idea to condition a response involuntary behaviour to a stimulus that it is not normality associated with y Take a stimulus that caused a response unconditioned stimulusUCSex food y Leads to UCRsalivation y Dogswhen presented with food they begin to salivatenatural involuntary response y Then make a CS tone cause a CR salivationdog would salivate when hearing the tuning fork tone y The focus in classical conditioning is on the stimulus and response involvedhow to get a response to be conditioned to a particular stimulusUCS foodUCR salvation CS toneCR salvationThorndike 1908Law of Effect y The consequences to the response and what that does to the bond between the stimulus and responseadded to Pavlov y When a response is rewarded the stimulus response bond strengthens y When its punished the bond is weakened y Cconsequence of the particular responseSkinner 1930Instrumental Conditioning y The focus of chapter 13 y Talked about instrumental conditioning operant conditioning and compared it to classical conditioning called it respondent conditioningthe difference between the 2 is if the response is voluntary y Classical conditioninginvoluntary y Skinner interested in voluntary responsesbehaviours that animals engaged in y Suggested that the important thing in understanding operant conditioning is the responseconsequence bondy Reward increases the likelihood that the response will reoccur y Punishment decreased the likelihood of the response reoccurring y Uses reinforcement instead of the word rewards y Added to Thorndike by saying there is positive and negative punishment and reinforcement y Positivewhen you do something to decreaseincrease behaviour ex spanking a child y Negativetaking away something to increasedecrease behaviour ex time outs o Taking away electric shock in rats increase bar pressing reinforcement y Negative reinforcement isnt punishment confusing Schedules of Reinforcement y Skinner also write a lot about different schedules of reinforcementprimarily positive reinforcement getting something to increase behaviour
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