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Lecture 1

Lecture 02 notes - September 18th - Freud - Lecture One Cancelled.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2550A/B

Lecture Two: September 18 th Seminars: - Look at things that should have been done differently or things you think were done well - Just want to see that you’ve read the articles - Due at the beginning of workshop - Dropping the seminar just after midterms/reading week probably as time to work on the essays due. Why study personality? - We all have one - It influences every decision we make (career, spouse, health, etc) and therefore can limit or expand our options. It encompasses how we behave, how we live and how we feel about how we live - Describing personality: terrific/awful o Personality covers too many things and is influenced by too many factors (situation, etc) to be easily described - Personality tests: 300 adjectives. Read and circle those that apply - Every theorist has their own opinion and they sometimes clash Definitions: - Personality: the unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of a person’s character that influence behaviour in different situations o Qualities we may try to hide are still a part of who we are o Unique: the complete combination of traits each person has is unique to them. - Construct: a hypothesis that is developed to explain or interpret life events - Reliability: consistency of a response to a psychological assessment device. o Test-retest, equivalent forms (similar copies of the same test), split-half (scores from one half of the test are compared to the other half) - Validity: the extent to which an assessment deice measures what it is intended to measure o Predictive (correlation between your test score and an objective measure), content (the individual items or questions), construct (compare to other tests designed to measure the same thing that have been validated) - Self-report inventories: asks people to answer questions about their own feelings and behaviours in various situations o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – true or false questions covering a very wide variety of personality aspects (and is therefore super long) o Disadvantages: Must tell the truth. Not always valid for less intelligent people or people with lower reading skills. Minor word changes can have major result changes. People give socially desirable answers. - Projective techniques: subjects are presumed to project their personal needs, fears and values onto their interpretation of an ambiguous stimulus o Rorschach Inkblot Technique o Card shown once – what do you see? Repeat cards – ask questions about previous answers. Notes are taken on behaviour – gestures, attitude, reactions, etc. Responses can be interpreted in numerous ways – movement, humans, animals, animate or inanimate objects, whole or part images, etc. Very subjective. - Clinical interviews: a wide range of behaviours, feelings and thoughts can be investigated o Advantage: a lot of valuable information can be gathered, can be effective when combined with an objective measure o Disadvantage: subjective, researcher bias o Usually applied alongside a self-report inventory - Behavioural assessment: evaluation of behaviour in a given situation (every step you take, every move you make…) o The better you know the person, the more accurate the results are - Thought and experience sampling: thoughts and/or experiences are sampled at specific intervals (therefore patients observe themselves) Theories - Sets of principles used to explain a particular class of phenomena - Must be testable and capable of stimulating research o Should be tested by someone other than the theorist (needs to be very clear then) - Clarify and explain data by organising them into a coherent framework - Should help understand and predict behaviour - Theories tend to be made based on our own bias – we judge what people do based on ourselves - Inductive theories: created from empirical observations - Deductive theories: theories are created to try to answer problems – theories are then tested to see if they can be accepted o Contain postulates, propositions, and conceptual definitions (defining any concepts in the theory or hypothesis so they can be accurately measured) - Operational definitions: constructs need to be defined using specific procedures or operations used to measure them (defining anxiety as an increase in breathing and heart rate) - Replication: Research does not prove theories – it supports it. The more it can be replicated with the same results, the more confident we are in that result. Case study - A detailed history of an individual that contains data from a variety of sources (interview, observation, behaviour assessment, tests) - Freud based his theory on case studies o Freud would generalise to everyone from case studies. - Limitations: Data are subjective – open to bias, difficult to generalise - Can lead to further studies using more rigorous methods Experimental Method (the Holy Grail, don’tcha know) - Obje
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