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Lecture 03 notes - September 25 - Finishing Freud & starting Jung.docx

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Psychology 2550A/B

Seminar summaries - Summarise the purpose, procedure/methods, results and conclusions/implications - Use proper APA referencing Seminar critique - Not formal - Should be considering limitations o Methods, conclusions, implications, etc. - How could it have been improved? - Can also discuss any positive aspects Defense mechanisms - Are brought about by having anxiety about something, but not being able to get away - Anxiety o Reality: tangible fears that help keep us safe (fire, tornado, car accident) o Neurotic: conflict between the id and the ego o Moral: conflict between the id and the superego (fear of one’s own conscience) – urge to do something that violates your moral code, your superego makes you anxious - Repression: unconscious denial of the existence of something that causes anxiety - Denial: denying the existence of an external threat or trauma - Displacement: shifts the id’s impulses from one object to another - Sublimation: altering or displacing id impulses into more socially acceptable behaviour Psychosexual stages of development - Personality is formed partly on the basis of the unique relationships we have as children with others - A person’s unique character type develops in childhood largely from parent-child interactions o The child is all id, the parents are there to teach their morals and what is socially acceptable. - Adult personality firmly shaped by the age of 5 - In each stage a conflict exists around a particular erogenous zone – this conflict must be resolved before the child can Oral (Birth- 1) - Mouth is the primary erogenous zone - State of dependence on caregiver - Id is dominant - Oral receptive character o Result of over indulgence in infancy o Excessively concerned with oral activities – eating, drinking, smoking, etc o Predisposed to unusual optimism and dependency o Depend on others to gratify their needs - Oral aggressive character o Result of under indulgence or severe frustration o Prone to excessive pessimism, hostility and aggressiveness Anal (1-3) - Defecation results in erotic pleasure for the child - Toilet training results in the child having to postpone or delay this pleasure – the gratification of an id impulse is interfered with as parents attempt to time and place of defecation - A contest of wills – ego control - Anal aggressive personality o Hostile and sadistic behaviour o View others as objects to be possessed - Anal retentive personality o Stubborn & stingy o Rigid, compulsively neat, obstinate and overly conscientious Phallic (4-5) - Focus of pleasure shifts from anus to genitals - Battle between id impulse and societal demands - Oedipus complex - boys o Castration anxiety o Marry mother, replace/destroy father o To resolve: replace attention to mom with something more acceptable and resolve shit with his father - Electra complex (named by others) - girls o Penis envy - Phallic character o Strong narcissism o Difficult establishing mature relationships o Males – brash, vain and self-assured  Repeated sexual conquests o Females – exaggerates her femininity  Uses talents and charms to overwhelm and conquer men Latency (5 – Puberty) - The oral, anal and phallic stages of psychosexual development are where most of the adult personality is shaped - In latency, sex instinct is dormant o Temporarily replaced by school activities, hobbies and developing friendships Genital (adolescence – adulthood) - If no major fixations have occurred at an earlier stage, the individual can lead a normal life - The genital personality type can find satisfaction in love and work - The ideal type - Sexually mature - Appropriate love objects (mature adult relationships) - Ability to love and be loved Freud’s research method - Main research method was the case study - Case study method has many limitations - Nature of his data - Validity of patients’ comments - Small and unrepresentative sample - Freud had little confidence in the experimental method - Freud’s observations cannot be repeated Support for character types - Oral receptive traits – excessive optimism, dependency, impatience, talkativeness - Oral aggressive traits – envy, excessive pessimism, manipulative-ness, hostility - Anal traits – attention to detail, love of independence, opposition to influence by others - Phallic traits – recklessness, excessive pride, vanity, self-assurance, courage Freudian slip - A forgotten word or casual lapse in speech actually reflects our unconscious motives - Some research to support the idea - Motley (1987) o Anxiety group (painful shock)  E.g. Damn shock for sham dock o Sexual anxiety group (sexually dress women)  E.g. Nu
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