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Lecture 04 - Finishing Jung and Starting Adler.docx

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Psychology 2550A/B

Seminar critiques - What did they do that I could’ve done better? - What did this article do that this one didn’t? - Is this critique actually a feasible thing? Can you really test everyone in the world? - Be sure to cite Development of Personality - Childhood to young adulthood o Ego forms slowly o Consciousness begins when the child is able to say “I” o Psyche does not assume a definite form until puberty  Psychic birth o Focus is external, attitude is extraversion - Middle-age o Major changes between 35 and 40 o Focus shifts from consciousness to unconsciousness, from extraversion to introversion o Looking for balance o People felt empty – life lost all meaning o Individuation: integration of conscious and the unconscious self. Become who we’re meant to be  Involves becoming an individual  Fulfilling one’s capacity  Developing one’s self  Change in archetypes  Once achieved, we can hit transcendence.  All parts of psyche are balanced Assessment in Jung’s Theory - Word association o Projective technique o Patient responds to a stimulus word with whatever word comes to their mind first - Symptom analysis o Similar to catharsis (the talking cure) o Focus on symptoms o Free association to those symptoms - Dream analysis o Series of dreams, rather than single dreams  Common symbols were clues to archetypes o Could give clues as to where the unconscious is leading us o Dreams can be used to further growth o Amplification  Patient focuses on an important aspect and describe it in certain ways, with multiple associations (Freud used free association from this point, but Jung focused around it) - Jung’s theory o Life-history reconstruction  Collection of past experiences o Not objective, controlled or systematic o No verbatim records o Unrepresentative samples o Subjective and unreliable  He never explained his procedure o Most data cannot be experimentally tested - Human nature Alfred Adler - Focused on individual uniqueness - Denied the universality of biological motives/goals - We are not victims of our own instincts - We are not doomed by childhood experience - Shaped by unique social environment – not by our impulses to satisfy biological needs - Conscious is the core of personality – not unconscious (we are actively involved in creating our personality) Biography - Early childhood marked by illness and an awareness of death - Suffered from rickets (vitamin D deficiency results in softening of the bones) - Nearly died of pneumonia at age 4 o Was always jealous of the other kids who were healthier o Forced himself to be involved in sports, etc. and earned the kid’s acceptance o Enjoyed the company of others - Mediocre student o “He should be a shoemaker” made him work harder to pull his grades up - Learned that you can overcome inferiorities o Can overcome the hardships in your childhood - Joined Freud’s Vienna Psychoanalytical Society in 1902 - Openly critical of Freud - Soon developed his own theory o Freud began openly bullying Adler (i.e. worthless theory) o Adler retaliated in kind (i.e. Freud’s theory was filth) Inferiority feelings - Feelings of inferiority are always present o Not a sign of weakness because everyone has it - Source of all human striving - Growth comes from compensation – trying to overcome inferiority - Process begins in infancy - A necessary motivation for growth and development - Inferiority is not genetic, but environment o However, environments are similar as infants (dependency, etc.) Complex - Inferiority complex o Unable to compensate o Poor opinion of themselves, unable to cope with the demands of life o Causes:  Organic inferiority  Physical “defects” can result in complex if not overcome properly  Spoiling  Never learn to overcome obstacles and develop inferiority complexes when confronted with them  Shock when they learn when they are not the centre of attention  Neglect  Early life is characterised by lack of love and security – often develop feelings of worthlessness and anger - Superiority complex - important o When a person overcompensates for feelings of inferiority Striving for superiority (not the same as superiority complex) - The urge toward perfection or completion of ourselves - Goal of life is oriented toward the future - Fictional finalism o There is an imagined or potential goal that guides our behaviour (i.e. heaven) o Goal is not tangible - Results in an increase in tension - Manifested in both the individual and society Style of life - A distinctive pattern of characteristics, behaviours and habits - Interchangeable with the terms personality, character, selves - Style of life is determined by age 5 o Determines what part of our environment we pay attention to/ignore, what attitude we hold - Creative Power of the Self o The way we interpret our experiences determines our personality o We create our style of life, ourselves, our character Birth order - First born o Undivided attention until younger sibling is born o Must share the attention/time o Effect of the second child depends on  Age  Amount the child has been pampered o More pressure is placed on them to know what to do because they’re older o Teacher/tutor/leader/disciplina
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