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Intro Soc - Ch.8:9 notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2720A/B
Patrick Brown

Chapter 8: conformity, compliance and obedience Jouret- claimed to be the reincarnation of jesus Christ believed world would end in a terrible fire. Oct 4 1994- two groups committed mass suicide finale on in 1997- 5 canadians -why- social pressure defining conformity, compliance and obedience three specific kinds of social influence- conformity, compliance and obedience- all refer to changes in behaviour caused by other people Conformity- an change in behaviour caused by another person compliance- a change in behaviour that is requested by another person or group obedience- change in behaviour that is demanded by another person or group -conformity encompassing compliance and obedience because it refers to any behaviour that occurs as a result of others influence -why does conformity without request or demand occur? two principle influences- 1. Informational influence- influence from other people that is motivated by the desire to be correct and obtain the correct information 2.normative influence- influence from other people that is motivated by a desire to gain rewards or avoid punishment. Might not think its correct but what to be liked or avoid conflict -they can occur simultaneously Conformity- doing as others do sherifs autokinetic effect studies: -conceptualized his research on the idea of social norms- a rule or guideline in a group or culture about what behaviours are proper and improper . interested in the influence of social norms on peoples behaviours the autokentitic effect- in a dark room a stationary point of light will appear to move periodically- asked participants to report how far the light moved. Second study- assembled them into groups of 2 or 3. Judgements of perceived movement began to converge- judgments of people in the same group became very similar although the different groups remained different. When broken up again group norms carried over to individual judgement multigenerational norms- after 11 generations responses were beginning to drift from the initial group but not far- the original standard was still evident norms can persist long after their original instigators are gone Aches experiment: -only 23% of the participants always gave the correct answer and went against the group on all 12 trials. The remain 77% went along with the group at least 1 out of the 12 trials. 45 % gave 1-6 wrong answers, 32 % gave 7-12. -the crutchfield apparatus- a machine that consists of an electrical panel with several rows of lights, it allows the study of conformity by stimulating the responses of numerous hypothetical participants- findings very similar to those of Ashe. -when selecting personal preference- there was little or no effect of group pressure nature of the task- the amount of conformity depends on features of the judgement task: 1. Ambiguity of the task- conformity more likely when tasks are ambiguous 2. Difficulty of the task- the harder it is the more conformity -why- because the individual feels both normative and informative influence when ambiguous and difficult individual differences- people who remain independent are somewhat higher in their motivation to achieve and in their leadership ability than people who conform. -individuals with high-self esteem less likely to conform, -age differences in conformity- conformity increases around grade 9 and then declines up to university years effect of group size- conformity increases as the size of the group increases from 1 to 3. Groups more than three did not produce further increases in conformity -further research should that conformity increases rapidly from 1 to 5 members but additional increase in size has no impacthow to make conformity disappear- 2 methods- 1. Instead of announcing answer out load write it down instead-this sift to private judgement produces a dramatical reduction in conformity 2. When judges are anonymous rather than face to face Cultural differences in conformity: individualism vs collectivism- conformity is higher in collectivist cultures than in individual countries culture predicted participants conformity even more strongly than did other influential factors such as the size of the group Gender differences in conformity: -women conform slightly more than do men -various reasons are: 1. Topics have been typically more masculine with the result that women would have less confidence in their judgement 2. Women are more concerned about harmony in social relationships than are men 3. Most conformity research has mostly been done on men- bias -when responses are private women do not conform more than men but when they are public there is a gender difference women somewhat more susceptible to normative influences compliance- doing as others want Foot-in-the-door technique- a strategy to increase compliance based on the fact that agreement with a small request increases the likelihood of agreement with a subsequent larger request -when a large request was made without a small request only 16% complied. When a small request was asked and then a larger one- 55% complied -most common technique used in everyday life -self-perception process- people who agree to small request label themselves eg. helpful, when the second request is made they are more likely to comply because of the label -consistency processes- agreeing to first request and not the second would create dissonance- dont want that -individual differences in p
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