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i-o psych and consumer psych.docx

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2990A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood

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November 6, 2012 Psychology on the Job Prologue: The Historical Roots of Industrial-Organizational Psychology A. Industrial Psychology: Personnel selection and placement -1913: Munsterberg publishes “The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency” -to increase productivity, we should select people with skills that match the job requirements  personnel selection (selecting the right person for the job) -1917 (WWI): Industrial psychology emerges in response to US army’s practical problem: How to select the best soldiers?  Psychologists develop 2 intelligence tests: Army Alpha (for recruits who could read and write English) and Army Beta (for recruits who couldn’t read and write English) -then, new tests to select the best officers, best pilots, eliminate most “neurotic” recruits  psychological tests could be used to screen and classify large numbers of people -then businesses and schools wants their own tests to select and classify people B. Organizational Psychology (1924): -The Hawthorne studies at Western Electric plant (in Hawthorne, Illinois) -the effect of environmental factors on productivity (e.g. altering lights, temperature, rest periods, etc)  any change increased productivity! -physical environment is not as important as the social & psychological environment -e.g. employees knew they were being observed (we they worked harder)  “The Hawthorne Effect” Leadership in Organizations Part 1: The Effect of Leaders on Job Satisfaction A. Survey Q: What is the worst thing about your job (greatest source of stress)? Survey Answer: 73% said “my boss” -most common complaints about bosses: -unwilling to delegate authority to workers (don’t let workers make decisions on their own) -abusive towards workers -treat workers as stupid & incompetent B. How do bad bosses become leaders? -best workers are promoted to leader positions (potential problem: being the best worker may have nothing to do with being a good leader!) Part 2: What Makes a Good Leader? A. The Great Person Theory 1. Basic idea: Great leaders are born with special “traits” that allow them to take charge. 2. What are these traits? (a) Longitudinal research: Measure traits at time 1; see if any of these traits are related to leader effectiveness at a later time (time 2) -e.g. officer candidates in Canadian Armed Forces -only one trait emerged (dominance) (b) Retrospective research: Find great leaders; look back to see what traits they possessed -e.g. political leaders -Canadian prime ministers -only one trait emerged: integrative complexity – the ability to recognize and adopt multiple views of a situation and integrate them (e.g. Trudeau) -American presidents -no traits were related to leader effectiveness -or maybe three (smart, messy, achievement oriented) 3. Conclusions -hundreds of traits have been measured, but very few are related to leader effectiveness -different studies identify different traits (not much consistency in findings) -so, not much support for the “great person” theory of leadership. Except … 4. Except for leader’s height? (not a “trait”) -taller presidents rated as more effective leaders (e.g. Abraham Lincoln) -tallest president (6’4”) and one of America’s greatest presidents -taller candidates are more likely to be elected president -between 1928-1996 taller candidate won in 16 of 16 presidential elections -in 2000: G.W. Bush beat Al Gore (but Gore won more of the popular vote!). Who was taller? Gore, by 2 inches -in 2004: Bush beat Kerry, but Kerry was 4 inches taller -in 2008: Obama beat McCain, and Obama was 4 inches taller -in 2012? Wait and see (tonight)… Romney is 6’2” and Obama is 6’1” Also note: -managers in US corporations (both male and female) are on average 1” taller than non-managers Maybe “great person” theory should be renamed “great-big person” theory Are there other factors that might be related to good leadership? B. Good leadership depends on the situation 1. Leader traits might be effective in one situation but not another. E.g. -integrative complexity of Canadian prime minister went down in crisis situations (became less effective leaders) -only a few become ever more IC in a crisis  E.g., Lester B. Pearson and the “Suez Canal” crisis (1956) -He was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize (1957) -came up with idea of “United Nations peace-keeping missions” (product of his IC thinking) 2. Characteristics of the Workers (I-O Psych) (a) The Scientific Management approach: Workers have to be “managed”. Why? -because they’re lazy and dislike work; need a leader to will force them to work -so, best leader will apply the necessary force -tell works what to do -watch workers carefully to make sure they do it -won’t hesitate to apply threats and punishment if workers don’t get the job done (b) The Human Relations approach: -inspired by Hawthorne studies -at beginning, “management” approach was being used (treat workers like children) -then, managers trained to treat workers like adults (and productivity increased)  Basic ideas of human relations approach: -control & punishment are not necessary -workers have needs and goals (seek challenge and responsibility on the job) -workers will be “naturally” productive if their needs and goals are met A good leader allows workers to participate in establishing personal (and organizational) goals. Almost everything in Chapter 6 is derived from Scientific Management approach, not Human Relations approach??? (or is this the opposite? Ask mom) -good leaders are defined by what they do C. Leadership Styles: Effective leaders do two things: 1. They show consideration to group members (respect & liking; build morale & cohesion)  Relationship-Oriented 2. They initiate structure (focused on “getting the job done”; get group moving toward goals)  Task-Oriented Interlude: Are you R-O or T-O? The “Least Preferred Coworker” Scale: Think of the one person you found most difficult to work with (LPC). Rate this person on the following: Unfriendly to Friendly Disagreeable to Agreeable Uncooperative to Cooperative Frustrating to Helpful Average rating = attitude toward LPC:  if your attitude is favourable, you’re relationship-oriented  if your attitude is unfavourable, you’re task-oriented (and you can’t see any positive qualities in them) The Case of Steve Jobs -at age of 21, founded Apple Computer Corporation -in the beginning, he was a very effective leader -had a relationship-oriented style (could bring people together; build cohesiveness; inspire creative solutions to complex problems) -within 5 years, Apple is worth over a billion dollars! -BUT, R-O style was not suited to managing a large corporation in highly competitive market -he was eventually forced to resign from his own company (… then hired back) Lesson: Leadership style can be very effective in some situations; not effective in others  Basic idea underlying: D. Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership 1. Effective leadership is contingent upon “leadership style” (R-O, T-O) and the amount of “situational control” the leader has. 2. Situational control depends on: -Leader-member relations/Leader-group relations (if group members like leader and group, leader’s control is high) -Task structure (if clear goals, everyone knows how to achieve goals, leader’s control is high)
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