Psychology 2990A/B Lecture Notes - Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Job Enrichment

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Chapter 6 (Textbook) Psychology and the workplace
Content theories of motivation focus on the importance of the work itself and the challenges,
growth opportunities and responsibilities work provides for employees.
Achievement motivation theory is a characteristic of successful executives. Desire to
accomplish something, to do a good job and to be the best.
Eg: In Poland (communist country) level of concern for achievement was as high as the US.
McClelland’s research
1. Favor work enviro able to assume responsibility for solving problems.
2. Take calculated risks and set moderate, attainable goals.
3. Need continued recognition and feedback about their progress
- *Managers high in the need to achieve display more respect for their subordinates.
- * Men and women have been found to score significantly high in the need to achieve than
male and female employees who are not entrepreneurs.
- Two types of goals
- Mastery developing competence and self-satisfaction through acquiring knowledge
and skills.
- Performance goals involve developing competence by performing better than other
people, such as co-workers.
- Study in Netherlands employees with mastery orientation were more effective on the
job than were those with a strong performance orientation.
- *People with strong performance orientation established lower in job satisfaction and
intrinsic motivation.
- Study on Taiwanese employees - found three things in high-tech jobs perseverance,
competition and level of difficulty of controlling task.
Needs Hierarchy theory needs hierarchy theory suggests that people always want what they
do not yet have.
Physiological needs, safety needs (shelter and psych security), belonging and love needs ( social
needs for love and affection), esteem needs (admiration and respect for others), self-
actualization (achieving our full-potential).
- *belonging needs can be important motivating forces on the job.
- * routine or boring job DOES NOT satisfy self-actualization needs, no matter how high
the salary.
- Maslow’s theory has gotten little research support.
Motivator-hygiene (two-factor) theory - which deals with both motivation and job satisfaction.
There are two things motivator needs (Maslow’s self actualization)– produce job satisfaction
and hygiene needs motivate employees to high job performance.
Hygiene needs (Maslow’s physio, belonging and safety) are external to the tasks of a particular
job and involve things like- company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations.
*Motivator’s needs played a more important role in job performance in the study on British
- Note” when hygiene needs are satisfied the results are not necessarily job satisfaction, but an
absence of dissatisfaction.
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Job enrichment (Herzberg believed to focus on internal job factors) :
1. Remove some management control over employees
2. Give employees to work on a whole unit instead of one part of it
3. Provide regular feedback
4. Encourage employees to take on new, challenging tasks and become experts.
Job characteristics theory of motivation that states that specific job characteristics lead to
psychological conditions that can increase motivation, performance and satisfaction in
employees who have a high growth need.
1. skills variety
2. task identity doing a whole unit
3. task significance
4. autonomy
5. feedback info of their contribution to the company.
Eg: In research, ppl with high growth need were found to be more uncomfortable with changes
in job characteristics.
Note The stronger the growth need , the more the person will value the positive emotional
feelings that result from good job performance.
- Increase sense of growth = increase motivation.
Hackman developed Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) self0report inventory survey. 1. Employees
perception of the job, 2. Employees level of growth need, 3. Job satisfaction.
Process theories of motivation
Valence-instrumentality expectancy ( VIE) the theory of motivation that stresses that people
make choices that are based on their perceived expectations that certain rewards will follow if
they behave in a particular way.
Three facets
1. Expectancy
2. Instrumentality
3. Valence- employees must decide if these outcomes have sufficient value to motivate
them to behave a certain way.
Note the greater our expectation of receiving a reward, the harder we weill work for it.
Equity theory by J- Stacy notion that motivation is influenced by our perception of how
equitably or fairly we are treated at work.
1. Benevolent ppl described as altruistic, are satisfied when they are under rewarded
compared to other co-workers.
2. Equity sensitive- everyone should be rewarded equally.
3. Entitled ppl believe that everything they receive is their due. They are only satisfied
when they are over rewarded.
Feeling of unfairly treatment ? Reduction in level of performance.
Boxed reading.: The work ethic
- Cal Ripken baseball player; no one has broken his work attendance record!
- Greek, romans and the Hebrews perceived work as a pessimistic thing; curse of gods, sin,
and punishment from god.
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