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Lecture 8

Psychology 2990A/B Lecture 8: CHAPTER 8
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2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2990A/B
Professor
Doug Hazelwood

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Description
CHAPTER 8: Engineering Psych Fire Truck Color -Red may be the traditional color of fire engines, but human factors and ergonomics research finds that lime-yellow fire vehicles are less likely to be involved in accidents. -This research shows that because the color-transmitting cones in our eyes don't work well in the dark, some colors are easier for us to see at night. We are most sensitive to greenish-yellow colors under dim conditions, making lime shades easiest to see in low lighting. -A 2009 study by the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA), a division of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), also concluded that fluorescent colors, including yellow-green and orange, are easiest to spot in daylight. -However, later studies have qualified these findings. While the 2009 USFA study confirmed that fluorescent yellow-green and orange may increase vehicle visibility, the report also concluded that recognizing the vehicle was more important than paint color. Therefore, if people in a particular community don't associate the color lime with fire trucks, then yellow-green vehicles may not actually be as conspicuous as intended. -The U.S. Fire Administration reported that motor vehicle accidents were the cause of more than 10 percent of firefighter deaths in 2012. Additionally, such accidents can also injure or kill civilians Third Break Light -The gadget was a third brake light, mounted in the base of rear windshields so that when drivers pressed their brakes, a triangle of light warned following drivers to slow down -At the end of a 10-month experiment, taxis with a third brake light had suffered 60.6 percent fewer rear-end collisions than had the control-group taxis. Additionally, drivers of taxis with the third brake light that were struck in the rear by other vehicles were injured 61.1 percent less often than were drivers of taxis without the light, and repairs to all taxis with the light cost 61.8 percent less than did repairs to taxis without the light. -A third brake light provides an extra signal to distracted drivers and studies confirm that it reduces automobile accidents. -these lights reduced rear impacts by 4.3 percent. -Although less dramatic than the original findings, this means that since the lights became standard equipment, there have been about 200,000 fewer crashes, 60,000 fewer injuries, and more than $600 million in property damage saved every year -Preliminary data suggest that LED lights may reduce crashes. MILITARY Shared Mental Models It's often the case that soldiers and other military personnel are required to work in groups or teams. Frequently, these group members are lacking the time needed to make decisions; instead, quick judgments must be made with little opportunity for communication. In such scenarios, how do military teams function effectively? Your final reading is about a construct called a shared mental model. Mental models are people's organization of knowledge about a particular topic. For example, in driving a car, you know that the key must first go into the ignition, the foot must be on the brake, then the car can be put into reverse or drive. This is a small piece of your own mental model about driving or, in other words, the way you organize your knowledge about driving. We develop mental models about all sorts of different topics. When group members have similar mental models, they are said to have a shared mental model. One of the benefits of
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