Class Notes (808,131)
Canada (493,086)
Psychology (6,021)
Prof (7)

Psych 2990 ch 5 lecture.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2990A/B

(Chapter 5) Motivation concerns the “why” of behavior Motivaiton is a psychological state that influences goal directed behavior 3 types of influences Activates goal directed behavior – iniatates or begin the behavior Sustains goal directed behavior – keeps its going after it begisn Regulates goal directed behavior – causes person to develop plans and strategies about achieving the goal We can define motivation as a psychological state that activates, sustains and regulates goal directed behavior (influences) Factors that influence motivation 2 basic perspectives Behavioral perspective – Behavior is controlled by its consequences. Behavior followed by rewards – inforcing. Punishments – less likely to perform again. Behavioral perspective says we can control behavior by controlling consequences. Punish undesirable behavior to decrease motivation and visa versa ie rewards and desirable behavior. Research shows theres danger in using rewards to increase motivation. Originally demonstrated in preschoolers who were selected because they liked playing with magic marker pens. Study had 2 phases. First phase – kids randomly assigned one of three groups. First group led to expect an external (extrinisic) reward for playing with pens – told on outset that they would receive good player award by drawing picture. Second group similar but different that they received good player award unexpectedly. Third (control) group – no good player award. Phase 2 – observed during free play period – reward is removed. Q – How long would kids play with MM pens. Results – kids in group 1 – played ½ the time as the student sin the other two groups. Expecting reward undermined intrinsic motivation when rewards were removed. Implications – motivation may decrease when rewards (good grades) are removed. Extrinisc rewards don’t always reduce motivation – must be used properly in the classroom. Not all students are intrisiclly motivated to learn material. When intrinsic motivation is low, rewards can increase motivation until the end of the course. Assuming they are intrisicly motivted – must be selective. When intrinsic motivation is high – rewards may increase intrinsic motivation as long as they are used selectively. Rewards can increase intrinsic motivation or keep at high level when given for quality of performance – not just performance – but quality. Cognitive perspective – 3 different perspectives 1) Expectancy x value theory – motivation is influenced by 2 cognitions (thoughts). A) persons expectancy of achieving the goal. B) Value of that goal. If both are high – person is motivated. If either is low – motivation is also low. 2) Albert Bandura’s Self Effecacy Theory – People will be motivated to achieve goals when they believe they have the ability to achieve goals. High self efficacy needed to want to achieve goals. 4 sources of self efficacy. Most important is mastery experience – past experience with success or failure. Can also stem from vicarious experience – performance of models who are similar to us. (Effecacy – belief you can do something) 3) Interpretation of emotional arousal – students get emotionally aroused before exams but people interpret it differently. Some as anxiouxity – decrease self efficacy. Some may interpret same arousal as excitement – increase self efficacy. 4) Social persuasion – Pep talk Self efficacy also influenced by specific goals we set for ourselves. If students set goals that are too easy – they achieve goals – experience self efficacy – don’t learn very much. If students set goals that are too difficult – not likely they will achieve – undermine mastery experience and therefore undermine self efficacy. Teachers can help set appropriate goals. Goals should be moderately difficult. Goals are still challenging but attainable. In addition, teachers should set clear performance standards so students can see whether goal was achieved. Attributional approach – whether motivated in goal directed behavior depends on how we’ve explained our ast behavior. Specifically, motivation depends on attributions or causal inferences of past successes and failures. 3 causal dimentions. One dimention is causal locus. Causes perceived as internal or something is external. Causal locus – external vs internal – not important about motivation but it increase self esteem. Failure for internal resaons opposed to external, decreas
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2990A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.