Motivation concerns the “why” of behavior
Motivaiton is a psychological state that influences goal directed behavior
3 types of influences
Activates goal directed behavior – iniatates or begin the behavior
Sustains goal directed behavior – keeps its going after it begisn
Regulates goal directed behavior – causes person to develop plans and
strategies about achieving the goal
We can define motivation as a psychological state that activates, sustains and
regulates goal directed behavior (influences)
Factors that influence motivation
2 basic perspectives
Behavioral perspective – Behavior is controlled by its consequences.
Behavior followed by rewards – inforcing. Punishments – less likely to perform
again. Behavioral perspective says we can control behavior by controlling
consequences. Punish undesirable behavior to decrease motivation and visa versa ie
rewards and desirable behavior.
Research shows theres danger in using rewards to increase motivation. Originally
demonstrated in preschoolers who were selected because they liked playing with
magic marker pens. Study had 2 phases. First phase – kids randomly assigned one of
three groups. First group led to expect an external (extrinisic) reward for playing
with pens – told on outset that they would receive good player award by drawing
picture. Second group similar but different that they received good player award
unexpectedly. Third (control) group – no good player award. Phase 2 – observed
during free play period – reward is removed. Q – How long would kids play with MM
pens. Results – kids in group 1 – played ½ the time as the student sin the other two
groups. Expecting reward undermined intrinsic motivation when rewards were
removed. Implications – motivation may decrease when rewards (good grades) are
Extrinisc rewards don’t always reduce motivation – must be used properly in
the classroom. Not all students are intrisiclly motivated to learn material. When
intrinsic motivation is low, rewards can increase motivation until the end of the
course. Assuming they are intrisicly motivted – must be selective. When intrinsic
motivation is high – rewards may increase intrinsic motivation as long as they are
used selectively. Rewards can increase intrinsic motivation or keep at high level
when given for quality of performance – not just performance – but quality.
Cognitive perspective – 3 different perspectives
1) Expectancy x value theory – motivation is influenced by 2 cognitions (thoughts).
A) persons expectancy of achieving the goal. B) Value of that goal. If both are high –
person is motivated. If either is low – motivation is also low.
2) Albert Bandura’s Self Effecacy Theory – People will be motivated to achieve
goals when they believe they have the ability to achieve goals. High self efficacy
needed to want to achieve goals. 4 sources of self efficacy. Most important is
mastery experience – past experience with success or failure. Can also stem from
vicarious experience – performance of models who are similar to us. (Effecacy – belief you can do something)
3) Interpretation of emotional arousal – students get emotionally aroused before
exams but people interpret it differently. Some as anxiouxity – decrease self efficacy.
Some may interpret same arousal as excitement – increase self efficacy.
4) Social persuasion – Pep talk
Self efficacy also influenced by specific goals we set for ourselves. If students set
goals that are too easy – they achieve goals – experience self efficacy – don’t learn
very much. If students set goals that are too difficult – not likely they will achieve –
undermine mastery experience and therefore undermine self efficacy. Teachers can
help set appropriate goals. Goals should be moderately difficult. Goals are still
challenging but attainable. In addition, teachers should set clear performance
standards so students can see whether goal was achieved.
Attributional approach – whether motivated in goal directed behavior depends on
how we’ve explained our ast behavior. Specifically, motivation depends on
attributions or causal inferences of past successes and failures. 3 causal dimentions.
One dimention is causal locus. Causes perceived as internal or something is external.
Causal locus – external vs internal – not important about motivation but it increase
self esteem. Failure for internal resaons opposed to external, decreas