Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
Western (60,000)
PSYCH (7,000)
Lecture 7

Psychology 2990A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Social Loafing, Simple Math, Equatorial Guinea


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2990A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood
Lecture
7

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
What is a Group.
Three definitions on 3 types of groups
o1. Two or more people in the same place at same time (e.g. strangers waiting for
a bus)
No interaction or communication necessary
An aggregate or collective ( a non-social group)
o2. Two or more people who influence each other (not much interaction or com)
A minimal group (e.g wave at basketball game)
o3. A “social group”: two or more people who influence each other through social
interaction.
Interact, communicate, make decisions, and have shared goals.
Part 1: Social Facilitation: How are we influenced by the mere presence of others?
A. Norman Triplet (1898) How are we influenced by the mere presence of the others.
oCyclists who competed with each other raced faster than cyclists who competed
alone.
oThe presence of others facilitates performance?
oVery first social psychology experiment.
Made children wind string on fishing wheel, in presence of other kids
doing the same thing, and some kids by themselves.
Children wind string faster in the presence of other kids who were winding
string than when alone.
oWhy?
The presence of other releases extra energy (“Dynamogism”) that
facilitates performance.
B. Establishing the generality of the facilitation effect. Occurs with
o“Coactors” (who perform the same task)
oOthers who are merely present (an audience)
oOther physical tasks (e.g., lifiting weights; shooting pool)

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

oCognitive tasks (simple math problems, learning word associations, naming
colors)
oPeople even write their signature faster in the presence of others.
BUT, sometimes the presence of others inhibits performance (e.g. class
presentation).
C. Zajonc (1965) and the Yerkex-Dodson Law.
The Yerkex-Dodson Law
o“Physiological arousal facilitates the dominant response”.
o“Dominant” response is “most-likely” response in that situation.
oOn easy tasks, dominant response is likely correct.
Arousal should facilitate performance.
oOn difficult tasks, dominant is likely incorrect.
Arousal should inhibit performance.
Zajonc (1965) said the presence of others is a source of arousal: Should facilitate
performance on easy tasks and inhibit performance on difficult tasks.
oThe Social Facilitation effect.
oA research example: Pool Players (% of shots)
Either playing alone or with an audience.
For experienced pool players they scored 70% alone and 80% with an
audience.
Did better with arousal.
For experienced players, this is the dominant response to shots,
it’s an easy task, so facilitation pushes the dominant response,
which is correct and increases performance.
For novice pool players, they scored 36% alone and 25% with an
audience.
Did worse for arousal.
For inexperienced players, this the dominant response to shots,
it’s a hard task for them, so facilitation pushes the dominant
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

response with is incorrect (missing shots) and decreases
performance.
A review of 241 studies involving almost 24000 participants, the social
facilitation effect is real.
D. Why is the presence of other’s arousing?
o1. Evaluation apprehension (other’s make us anxious because they might be
evaluating us)
If they’re blindfolded (can’t evaluate us), social facilitation is less likely.
o2. Others are distracting (creates arousal) Why?
We experience “attentional conflict” (focus on “audience” or “task”? 
arousal)
Where do I focus my attention, too many mind. (last samurai)
Non-social stimuli (loud noises, flashing lights) show same effect as
presence of others. There’s nothing uniquely “social” about social
facilitation.
o3. [Zajonc] the mere presence of others makes us more “alert” (or “vigilant”),
because they might do something that we have to respond to. This “alertness”
produces arousal (which facilitates the dominant response according to Yerkes-
Dodson Law)
The “cockroach study”. Cockroaches don’t like light and are
photophobic.
Cockroaches were put in an easy maze, and a hard maze.
When alone, it took 40 seconds to get to desired dark spot when
light came on easy maze. It took 110 seconds to get to dark spot
on complex maze.
When audience is present, social facilitation effect occurs. It took
30 seconds when light came on easy maze. When in difficult
maze, it took 130 seconds on complex maze to get to desired dark
spot.
Zajonc said their alert and vigilant, which caused the arousal. His
definition works here.
oFor humans, all 3 definitions work.
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version