Psych 2990 March 19.doc

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Attitudechange is a big bussiness:
1. Avg, person in NA is exposed to over 1500 persuasive attemts in a single day!
- about half come from ads
-In canada , 10 billion per year
-in States $1 billion (mcDonalds
2. Definition attitude: an evaluation response toward an object or issue (expresses favor
or disfavor)
-three types of evaluative responses:
>Behavioral (approach/ avoid; buy/not buy; ex. spider , if u want to study them, then u
have fav attitude toward them)
> Affective (emotions- love, hate, like)
> Cognitive (evaluate beliefs- I believe) the most attention
Q: how can we change ppl’s attitude
Part1: The msg learning approach (Hovland and the Yale Group)
How can we convience that the animal is wrong?
In order to influence, the person has to learn!
a. Four sequential stages of messages learning:
1. attention to msg
2. Comprehension (understand what’s said)
3. yielding (accept conclusion of msg)
---attitude change; the most critical stage
4. retention (store msg&attitude in memory).
B. attitude change (msg learning) is not easy!
ex. persvave ppl to buy our product or check their blood every month.
e.g. if we are 80% succesful with 10 ppl:
-80 will attend to msg but we lost 20 ppl
-64 will comprehend the msg (80*.8)
-51 will yeild to conclusion (64*.8)
-41 will remember new attitude (51*.8)
-only 33 ppl will act on their new attitude (41*.8)
-- not bad if target large numbers of ppl
---- The Miller Lite beer commercials (tastes great, less filling) (usually every commmer-
cial has two sport stars) ( usually addresses to guys who like to wotch sport games and
drink beer.
C. Factors that influence message learning
Who Says what to whom
Source MSG Recipients
D. Research on yielding (attittude change)
---Inconsistent results! E.g.
> Sourse (credibility, expertise, likeability, similarity, attractiveness)
> Recipient (e.g. Intelligence, moods ( to put ppl in a good mood))
> Msg (e.g. length are more persvative( as many facts as it is posible; some showing
that shorter msg are better for changing the attitude), comprehensibility)
some research showed increase, nothing or decreased persvasion.
>1977 : there is reigning confusion in this area.
Part 2: Greenwald’s Cognitive Response Model
(something is missing)- why r we attending and comprehending what is say in the msg.
we are actiively thinking . => Cognitive responses>>>>> Internal Stream of thought
( more thoughts we generate, more we will be agree or disagree) Summary: influences
direction and amount of attitude change
Interlude: Measuring cognitive responses
The thought -listing task
-The recipients listen to (or read) msg,
- List all of theit “thoughts” about msg,
-Thoughts are coded as favourable or unfav. Eg
---msg made some good points (fav)
--- I thought the arguments were stupid (unfav).
Note: can also code thought about source:
-I like the source (fav)
-that guy makes me sick (unfav)
-ex. Canadian Tire guy (unfav)
A. Factors that influence the direction (fav) of cognitive responses:
1. Currebt attitudes:
-if msg is consistent (pro-attitudinal), favourable thoughts generated; if counter- attitudi-
nal unfavorable thoughts generated.
-But, doesn’t address attitude change.
-Q: other factors that influence direction?
2. Petty& Cacioppo: Argument quality
--> if strong>> favorable thoughts--> agree
--> if weak>> unfavourable thoughts--> disagree
all students need to ocomplete a comprehensive
B. Factors that influence the amount of cognitive responding:
1. Distraction
>> decreases cognitive responses
-If arguments are strong, fewer favorable thoughts generated>> agree less with msg
(when distracted),
-If arguments are weak, fewer unfavourable thoughts generated >> agree more with
msg (when distracted).
2. Msg repetition increases cog responses.
-if arguments are strong, more fav thoughts generated -> agree more with msg (when
-if arguments are weak, more unfav thoughts generated>> agree less with msg (when
3. Personal involvement (relevance) increases cog responses.
Part 3: The elaboration Likehood Model (Petty &Cacioppo)(extending the cognitive re-
sponse model)
a. Factors that determine msg elaboration (amount of thought):
1. Motivation to think about msg:
*personal relevance;
*personal responsibiliyt (reduces social loafing);
*“need for cognition” (enjoy complex thought)
2. Ability to think about msg:
*distraction dicreases; msg repetition increases;
*prior knowledge increases; time pressure decreases
*msg comprehensibility increases
B. what if motivation or ability are low?
>> there are two routes to persuausion:
1. Central route (scrutinize msg);
-> requires high motivation and ability.
2. Peripheral route
-taken when motivation &/ or ability are low